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Bulgar borrowings in Hungarian: the problem of reflecting *q-

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1 Bulgar borrowings in Hungarian: the problem of reflecting *q-

2 The stages of borrowing from Turkic languages in Hungarian 1. From Proto-Bulgar: "the Pre-Conquest Layer“? (simultaneous contact of Hungarians, Bulgars and Alans, localized in the Volga-Kama region, or, rather, in the Don- Kuban region; V-VI cc. a.D.) 2. From Danube Bulgar (already settled in the territory of Bulgaria from the VII c.; about X c. a.D.) 3. From Early Kypchak ( "Kuman-Pecheneg“, Hungary, X- XIII cc. a.D.) 4. From Kypchak (“Nogai”, Eastern borders of Hungary, after XIII c.) 5. From Osman Turkish (after XIV c.)

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4 The early Turkic loans in Hungarian with initial h- 1. Hung. homok 'sand' [from 1055, humca]; PT *Kum 'sand', Yak. kumax (PA *kiumo): 2. Hung. harang 'bell' (from 1211) : PT *Koŋra-gu 'bell': QrqUig. qoŋraq, qoŋra ɣ u, Tur. dial. koŋrak (PA *kōŋa). 3. Hung. hajó 'ship' (dial. hijjó, hijó, híjó 'boat'; from 1181, Haio ). : PT *K(i)aj-guk 'boat, paddle', QrqUig. qaj ɣ uq, qaj ɣ ïq (MK), Tur. kayık, Tatar qajïq, Yakut. xajïk, dial. xojūk (PA *gằjá). 4. Hung. herjó ‘hawk’ (from 1366 Heryou); PT *Kïrkuj 'hawk, falcon', Chuv. xərxi, Yak. kïrbïj, Trkm. Gïrγï. 5. Hung. hurok 'snare' [from 1526 vrok-, 1645, hurok]; PT *ukruk 'lasso', QrqUig. uqruq (MK), Middle Kypch. oqruq, Mod. Uig. dial. oquruq, Turkm. dial. uquruq, Yakut. ogūr, oguruk, Kirgh. uquruq, but cf. in Kypchak languages: Uzbek liter. qọruq, Balk. quruq, Tatar korïk, Bashkir qoroq, Nog. qurïq, Kazakh qurïq, QQalp. qurïq (but Qumuq dial. (Kaitak) uqruq).

5 The origin of the Hungarian opposition h ~ k: PU *k- > Hung. h- in back-vocalic stems PU *k- > Hung. k- in front-vocalic stems. Hung. hal 'fish' < PU *kala Hung. két 'two' < PU *kEktä A chronological border: the Alanic initial velar fricative is reflected by Hungarian h- and the Alanic k- is reflected by Hungarian k-, including the cases before native back vowels Hung. híd 'bridge' (alternating longitude), Osset. Iron. xid, Digor. xed; Hung. húg 'younger sister', Osset. xo < *hwahā Hung. kazdag / gazdag 'rich', Osset. qaezdyg <* kazna- + - dyg

6 Ancient Chinese transcriptions of Xiongnu a) ɣ āt-tə ̄ j 閼 氐 'wife of shanyu', *xātuń (from presumable Early Saka *hvatujn Sughd. xuten 'queen, the first wife of the king'); Xiongnu *xātuń > Sughd. xātūn [x'twn] 'great lady, the second wife of the king', later borrowed in the Ancient Turkic. ɣ wā l ̥ wāt 毆 脫 'encampments, camps‘ < *xoλ-ut < PT *Koλ(з) 'temporary yurt, nomadic camp, military unit'; b) 徑路 *kēŋh-rāh ‘sword’ < *Kïŋrak 廓洛 *k(h)wā(k)-r(h)āk ‘belt’ < *Kur-γak 駃騠 *kwjāt-d(h)ē ‘a k. of horse’ < *Kạtïr ‘mule’ 隔昆 *krēk-kwə ̄ n ‘Kirgiz’ < *Kïrkïř 谷蠡 *kōk-r(h) ǝ ‘patrimony’ < *Kor(ï)γï 昆子 *kwə ̄ n-cjí ‘beaver’ < *Kuntřз 屈孓 *khwit-kwət ‘low’ < *Kodku-t

7 Khazar words: X c.: χαγανος, χαζαροι; xaδing 'birch' (Ibn Fadlan), xapubaliq ‘Derbent’ (Ibn Rustah); XI c.: X[ili]g (Gardizi, 1050, perhaps *Kïλ-lïg) Volga Bulgar epitaphs (XIII-XVcc.): xyrx 'forty‘, toxyr 'nine', waxy- < *oqï- 'read’ etc. Eastern Slavic borrowing from Volga Bulgar: Old Rus. Хопужьское / Хупожское море (< PTu *kapug) Modern Chuvash: χuran ‘cauldron’ < PTu *kařan < CT *kazan K ǝ m ǝ l ‘silver’ < PTu *kümüλ < CT *kümüš.

8 Borrowings to Slavic languages from the Danube Bulgar: *kovъčegъ 'box, chest' << PT *Kapï(r)čak 'box, coffin' *klobukъ 'cap' << PT *Kalpak 'cap, hat' Bulgarian корéм 'belly' << PT *Karïm id. *kargujь 'hawk, falcon' > OChSl, ChSl крагуи << PT *Kïrkuj 'hawk, falcon' *kvarъ 'harm, damage' << PT *kōr 'harm, loss, damage' ChSl. (Bulg., Rus.) кърчии 'smith' << PT *kurč “steel; hard"+ -čï Cf.: *xal ǫ ga ‘thicket, bushes’ Chuv. olъx ‘water meadow’ etc. *xor ǫ gy 'flag' << PT *(h)oruŋgu ‘flag’

9 Borrowings to Slavic languages from the Danube Bulgar: OChSl. сокачии 'butcher' Danube Bulgar *soqъč ǝ ChSl (Rus.) блехъчии, бльхъчии 'smith', OBulg. блъхчии, Bulg. блъхчия 'carpenter' << PT bilgüči ‘wise man’, Chuv. pәlәvśә *dъxtorъ 'pillow': RusChSl. and OChSl. дохъторъ, дъхъторъ << PT *jạt-gur: Chuv. śïDar 'pillow', *jạt- 'to lie‘ (Yak. s ɨ t-, Dolg. h ɨ t-) + -gUr deverb. Cf. Danube Bulgar дохсъ ‘?’ and тохъ 'horse' in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans

10 The names of Pecheneg tribes in the Greek transfer: Χαβουξιν (qabuqšin), Χαρο (qara), Χοπόν (qabqan) In the Armenian-Kypchak (Polovets?) *q > x in all positions "German" dialect of Codex Cumanicus: -h only in syllable finals: taoh 'chicken', azih 'provisions' modern Karaite (Trakai): ayah 'foot‘, The only clear case of Kypchak borrowing in the Old Church Slavonic, OChSl. ѧ тъхульница ‘cloister hotel’ ( x in the syllable initial.

11 The Proto-Bulgar loans in Hungarian with initial k- 1. Hung. karó 'nail' : PT *Kař-guk 'peg' (Old Uig. qaz ɣ uq, QrqUig. qazŋuq (MK). PA *gaŕa 'tip of the blade'). 2. Hung. kút 'well' (kutat), from 1055: PT *Kud- 'pour', *Kud-ug 'well' (Old Uig. qud-, qudu ɣ, QrqUig. quj- (MK), quδu ɣ (MK, QB), Chuv. x ɨ v-, Yakut kut-, Tuv. qut-, Tof. qut-/d-, Turkm. Guj-, Gujï); PA *kùdá. 3. Hung. kos 'ram' (from 1061, ko ʃ -dy): PT *Koč 'sheep' (the Chuv. form lacks; Chag. qoč, Uzbek dial. ɣ ọč, Khal. Goč, Tur. koç, Gag. koç, Az. Goç, Turkm. Goč, QQalp. ɣ oš); PA *k/k'oč'V. 4. Hung. koporsó 'coffin' (from 1372 koporso-k-nak,), copor ʃ o, kaparso (1794): PT *Kapïrčak 'box, coffin' (Chuv. form lacks, QrqUig. qapïrčaq (MK )); PA *k'ap'a; *a > o is an inner Hungarian transition (under the influence of p?).

12 The Bulgar loans in Hungarian with initial k- 5. Hung. karvaly 'falcon' [1222 Carol] : PT *K ɨ rkuj 'hawk' (Chuv. xərxi, QrqUig. qïr ɣ uj (MK)); PA *kīra. 6. Old Hung. karamó 'measles' : PT *kïřïl-mïk, *kïřla-mïk 'measles' (Chuv. xərləxen) 7. Hung. kapu 'gate' (from kopus,, 1061 – Kapus,): PT (a group of derived stems from *Kap- 'to close') *Kap- gu 'gate‘(Middle Uig. qapu (Tefs.: qapu-sï), Chag. qapu (PdeC 392, San). 8. Hung. kar, karok (Pl) 'arm' : PT *Kar- 'arm (upper part), forearm, various measures of length' (Chuv. Xor 'measure, which is equal to twice the distance from the elbow to the end of the middle finger, "rope elbow'; al xursi 'part of the arm from wrist to elbow'); PA *gàrá.

13 The Danube Bulgar loans in Hungarian with initial k- 9. Hung. kár 'harm' : PT *Kōr 'harm, loss' (Chuv. xor 'resentment, unhappiness', Yakut kuor 'mud, putrid smell'; Old Uig. qor, QrqUig. qor (MK), Alt. qor); PA *k'ōru; 10. Hung. karám 'corral' : PT *Kōrï- 'to defend, block' (Yenis. qorï-, QrqUig. qorï- (MK), Turkm. Gōrï-, Gōra-); PA *k' ṓ ra; 11. Hung. kaka 'reeds' : PT *Kōka 'kind of reed' (Uzb. qọ ɣ a, Tur. kova, dial. ko ɣ a, Karaite qo ɣ a, Qumuq qo ɣ a, Tatar qu ɣ a, Bashkir dial. qu ɣ a, Nogai qo ɣ a, Kazakh qo ɣ a, QQalp. qo ɣ a, Alt. qo ɣ o); PA *gokV 'kind of cane or wild onion'; the long vowel is reconstructed by the behaviour of the medial consonant (voicing after a long vowel)

14 The Bulgar or Early Kypchak loans in Hungarian with initial k- 12. Hung. kóró 'dry stalk' : PT *Kubrï-k, -gak (Chuv. xura 'dry stalk'); PA *k'obe; 13. Hung. kor 'period of time, age': PT *Kur 'rank, degree, a number; time' (Chuv. xъrax, Old Uig. qur, QrqUig. qur (MK), Turkm. Gor 'layer, level'); PA *kióru; 14. Hung. korom 'soot' : PT *Kurum 'soot' (Chuv. (Anatri) xъrъm, QrqUig. qurun (MK), Turkm. Gurum); PA *k'iŭru (-mV); 15. Hung. komló 'hops': PT *Kumlak 'hops' (Chuv. xъ ʷ mla, Khakas xumnax, Shor qïmnaq, QrqUig. qumlaq (MK), Tatar qolmaq, dial. qomlaq, qomalaq, Alt. qumdaq, qumanaq); PA *k ʽ iomo(lV); 16. Hung. kín 'torture' : PT *Kï ̄ jn 'guilt' (Chuv. xən); PA *k'iūńa.

15 Probably late loans in Hungarian with initial k- 17. Hung. kobak 'pumpkin' (from 1340?, N.pr.; kobak ―1723, kabak, kubak): PT *Kāpak (qabaq (MK), cabuc (CC), Turkm. dial. qāvaq). 18. Hung. koboz 'lute, zither' (from 1193 – a placename coboz, under the Kobzus, koboznak): PT *Kopuř > CT *Kopuz 'kind of musical (stringed) instrument' (Tofa xobus, Shor qobus, Old Uig. qopuz, QrqUig. qopuz (MK), Chag. qopuz [Borovkov 1961]; Middle Kypch. qobuz [AH], Uzbek qọbiz, Mod. Uig. qowuz, Tur. kopuz, Turkm. Gopuz, Karaite qobuz, QBalq. qobuz, Tatar qubïz, Bashkir qubïδ, Nogai, Kazakh, QQalp. qobïz, Kirgh. qobuz). 19. Hung. kuvasz 'mongrel' (first recorded under 'Wolfhound'), cf. Middle Kypch. kubas [AH] 'pedigree dog'. cf. QBalq. qubas 'yellow' (in particular, the suit of the animal); from PT *Kuba 'yellow' (a suit).

16 Conclusions: a) The choice of a k- or h- in Hungarian shows no correlation with the quality of the initial consonant in the PA (*g-, *k- or *k'-); b) The Turkic loans in Hungarian with initial h- are rather Kuman-Pecheneg (Pecheneg?) borrowings: respectively, the group 8-10 will be considered as Danube Bulgar, and the group will be considered as early but not Kuman- Pecheneg borrowings, i. e. either early or late Bulgar loans.


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