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Japanese Legends. Momotaro “Peach Boy” Momotaro is discovered inside the peach.

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Presentation on theme: "Japanese Legends. Momotaro “Peach Boy” Momotaro is discovered inside the peach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Japanese Legends

2 Momotaro “Peach Boy”

3 Momotaro is discovered inside the peach

4 Momotaro & Friends

5 Momotaro & friends set off for the island

6 Momotaro & friends fight the demons

7 Momotaro & friends return home victorious

8 Kaguya-hime “Bamboo Princess”

9

10

11 Critical Approaches  Formalist Criticism  Biographical Criticism  Historical Criticism  Psychological Criticism  Mythological Criticism  Sociological Criticism  Gender Criticism  Reader-Response Criticism  Deconstructionist Criticism  Cultural Studies Criticism

12 Samurai

13 Bushido’s Seven Virtues 義Gi – Rectitude 勇Yu – Courage 仁Jin – Benevolence 礼Rei – Respect 誠Makoto – Honesty 名誉 Meiyo – Honor 忠義 Chuugi – Loyalty

14 義 Gi – Rectitude The power of resolution: The power of resolution: “Rectitude is the power of deciding upon a certain course of conduct in accordance with reason, without wavering – to die when it is right to die, to strike when to strike is right.” “Rectitude is the power of deciding upon a certain course of conduct in accordance with reason, without wavering – to die when it is right to die, to strike when to strike is right.” “Rectitude is the bone that gives firmness and stature. As without bones the head cannot rest on the top of the spine, nor hands move nor feet stand, so without rectitude neither talent nor learning can make of a human frame a samurai. With it the lack of accomplishments is as nothing.” “Rectitude is the bone that gives firmness and stature. As without bones the head cannot rest on the top of the spine, nor hands move nor feet stand, so without rectitude neither talent nor learning can make of a human frame a samurai. With it the lack of accomplishments is as nothing.” “Duty” “Duty”

15 勇 Yu – Courage Courage must be exercised in the cause of Righteousness or it is unworthy to be counted amongst the virtues. Courage must be exercised in the cause of Righteousness or it is unworthy to be counted amongst the virtues. “Perceiving what is right and doing it not, argues lack of courage.” ~Confucius~ “Perceiving what is right and doing it not, argues lack of courage.” ~Confucius~

16 仁 Jin – Benevolence In a ruler, a paternal government: In a ruler, a paternal government: Through one perspective, an amalgamation of democracy and absolutism Through one perspective, an amalgamation of democracy and absolutism “When the prince loves what the people love and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.” ~Confucius~ “When the prince loves what the people love and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.” ~Confucius~

17 Bushido as an Ethical System Very loosely translated as a form of chivalry Very loosely translated as a form of chivalry Chivalry from ME chivalrie, from FR chevalerie from FR chevalier from L caballarius meaning “horseman” Chivalry from ME chivalrie, from FR chevalerie from FR chevalier from L caballarius meaning “horseman” Bu-shi-do means “Military-Knight-Ways” Bu-shi-do means “Military-Knight-Ways” Code of moral principles, which the knights were required to observe Code of moral principles, which the knights were required to observe Not a written code, but organic growth of centuries of military history Not a written code, but organic growth of centuries of military history

18 Sources of Bushido Buddhism (Zen): “represents human effort to reach through meditation zones of thought beyond the range of verbal expression.” ~Lafcadio Hearn~ Buddhism (Zen): “represents human effort to reach through meditation zones of thought beyond the range of verbal expression.” ~Lafcadio Hearn~ To put oneself in harmony with the Absolute To put oneself in harmony with the Absolute

19 Sources of Bushido Shintoism Believes in innate goodness and purity of the human soul Believes in innate goodness and purity of the human soul Brought about awareness of national consciousness in the individual rather than moral Brought about awareness of national consciousness in the individual rather than moral The country is itself a sacred place of the gods and forebears. The country is itself a sacred place of the gods and forebears. Ancestor-worship made the Imperial family the fountainhead of the whole nation – the incarnation of heaven on earth. Ancestor-worship made the Imperial family the fountainhead of the whole nation – the incarnation of heaven on earth. Focuses on Patriotism and Loyalty, but not so much as doctrines as impulses Focuses on Patriotism and Loyalty, but not so much as doctrines as impulses

20 Confucius Five moral relations: (the governing and the governed) Five moral relations: (the governing and the governed)  Master and servant  Father and son  Husband and wife  Older and younger brother  Between friend and friend

21 礼 Rei – Respect Different from outward appearances of propriety that lack empathy for the sensibilities of others Different from outward appearances of propriety that lack empathy for the sensibilities of others Rei expresses the spiritual significance of social graces and decorum; a graceful expression of sympathy Rei expresses the spiritual significance of social graces and decorum; a graceful expression of sympathy

22 礼 Rei – Respect (continued) Cultural differences – West vs. East – Gift giving: Cultural differences – West vs. East – Gift giving: West: “This is a nice gift; if it weren’t nice, I wouldn’t give it to you for it would be an insult to give you anything less.” Attention to the material aspect of the gift West: “This is a nice gift; if it weren’t nice, I wouldn’t give it to you for it would be an insult to give you anything less.” Attention to the material aspect of the gift East: “You are a nice person and no gift is nice enough for you. Accept my gift as a token of my good will.” Attention to the spirit of the gift East: “You are a nice person and no gift is nice enough for you. Accept my gift as a token of my good will.” Attention to the spirit of the gift

23 誠 Makoto – Honesty The difference between truth (makoto) and fact (honto) The difference between truth (makoto) and fact (honto)

24 名誉 Meiyo – Honour Consciousness of personal dignity and worth Consciousness of personal dignity and worth Fear of disgrace Fear of disgrace Intense sense of shame countered by preaching magnamity and patience Intense sense of shame countered by preaching magnamity and patience

25 忠義 Chuugi – Loyalty The interest of the family and of the member is one and inseparable. There is no individual interest for father, son, husband, or wife The interest of the family and of the member is one and inseparable. There is no individual interest for father, son, husband, or wife The state antedates the individual The state antedates the individual If subject and master differed (subject following bushido principles) loyalty was demonstrated by subject using every available means to show his master the true path; often, the samurai made his final appeal by shedding his own blood (seppuku) as a demonstration of his sincerity If subject and master differed (subject following bushido principles) loyalty was demonstrated by subject using every available means to show his master the true path; often, the samurai made his final appeal by shedding his own blood (seppuku) as a demonstration of his sincerity

26 Chushingura

27 “Chushingura is an all-encompassing term for the entire body of cultural production that ultimately stems from the Akô Incident of ” ~Henry D Smith II, Columbia University~ “Rethinking the Story of the 47 Ronin.”

28 Lord Asano is restrained after cutting Lord Kira.

29 Lord Asano prepares to commit seppuku.

30 Lord Oishi and 47 loyal retainers at Lord Kira’s mansion

31 The discovery and capture of Lord Kira in a woodshed

32 Lord Kira’s head after washing it in the well.

33 The Aftermath The attack was the most exciting incident to occur in recent memory It brought immediate acclaim and admiration More than 60 years had passed since the last armed conflict; the incident seemed like a great battle Oishi and the Ronin took on the aspects of a victorious general and his army

34 The Shogun, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, wished to reward Oishi and his men, despite the way he had treated Asano two years earlier He made of show of bowing to the will of the people in doing so Leading scholars of the day believed that the Ronin should have been held up as examples and rewarded Some criticized Kira's son for not assisting his father and also for not committing seppuku after the raid

35 The Ronin were legally wrong, however, their actions were in accord with the official moral code As the weeks passed, the case was increasingly considered on its legal aspects The Dilemma

36 The Legal Points They were trained soldiers Formed a secret army Waged a brief campaign

37 The Legal Points (continued) They had fought a small civil war, not a personal cause It was planned: Battle plans Structured command Intelligence operations Supply lines Bases of operation

38 The Legal Points They used weapons and tools from a supply depot in Edo War drums Whistles Code language Ladders Battering mallets Uniforms Armor, swords, spears, and bows

39 The Long View Their actions could not be condoned regardless of the nobility of their motive If the Ronin were released, the relatives of Kira would be honor-bound to seek revenge All the relatives of the late Asano would be obligated to protect the Ronin The ensuing feud could precipitate a civil war that would threaten the Tokugawa Shogunate

40 The Lord Abbot Weighs In Advice sought from the Lord Abbot of Kwanei Temple at Ueno His opinion was that it was best to let them die as martyrs If they were allowed to live, some may become tempted by the adulation and compromise their character through dishonorable acts

41 The Final Chapter On the 4 February 1703, the Ronin were informed that they would be permitted to die by their own hand The presiding daimyos stalled until dusk in the hopes of receiving a pardon Within two weeks, the first Kabuki play, “Chushingura” was staged

42 Critical Approaches  Formalist Criticism  Biographical Criticism  Historical Criticism  Psychological Criticism  Mythological Criticism  Sociological Criticism  Gender Criticism  Reader-Response Criticism  Deconstructionist Criticism  Cultural Studies Criticism

43 Hell Screen (“Jigoku hen”)

44  Considered by many to be Japan’s greatest short story writer  Heavily influenced by Western writers such as Poe, Strindberg, Dostoevsky, and Flaubert  Part of a literary movement that centered on the magazine Shin Shicho (New Current of Thought)  Intent on undermining the influence of the romanticists and aesthetes of early 20 th century Akutagawa Ryunosuke (1892 – 1927)

45 Akutagawa Ryunosuke  Philosophy: the writer should not be overly influenced by either beauty or idealism  Mission: replace emotion with reason. Writings often tended toward the surreal, the grotesque, and the fantastic  Mixes the mythology of Japan with the style of modern Western writers

46 The Hell Screen (1918) (Jigoku hen)  Medieval in spirit  Feudalism within living memory; rule of might vs. rule of law  Original language is a language of understatement, unlike English  Embodies simultaneous qualities of horror and elegance  “Extravagance and horror are in his work but never in his style, which is always crystal clear.” ~Jorge Luis Borges~

47 The Hell Screen (1918) (Jigoku hen)  Complex story in two major sections with an unreliable narrator, a court flunky of the Great Lord of Horikawa  At the time of the narration, he has been with the Great Lord for over twenty years  Narrator praises his lord, yet it becomes evident through anecdotes that the Great Lord is immoral  The reader suspects that the narrator knows more than he is saying

48 The Hell Screen (1918) (Jigoku hen) Dramatis personae  Narrator  Great Lord of Horikawa  Yoshihide, the painter  Yuzuki, his daughter  The Abbot of Yokawa  Pet Monkey  Yoshihide’s apprentices

49 Great Lord of Horikawa  Goes beyond ordinary expectations; tends to be ‘over-the-top’  Mansion is of greatest grandeur and boldness of design  Anecdotes:  Passed unhurt through mysterious scene of pandemonium in front of the Imperial palace  Gift of 30 white horses at an Imperial banquet  Propitiated the wrath of a god during bridge construction  In possession of the Hell Screen

50 Yoshihide  Perfectionist; art is more important to him than anything else, with one exception. Nothing takes precedence over his art.  All agree that his work is startlingly brilliant, but there is always a sense of the grotesque and melancholy about it: “The Five Phases of the Transmigration of Souls” makes one hear the sighs and sobbing of spirits and smell the stench of rotting corpses.  Arrogant; also stingy, harsh, shameless, lazy, & avaricious  Ugly: with his crouching stance he is nicknamed “Saruhide” (monkey hide)

51 Yuzuki  Fifteen years old  Beautiful and compassionate  Deeply loved by her father Abbot of Yokawa  Abhors Yoshihide Apprentices  Despite fears, obey their master unquestioningly

52  Yoshihide dotes on Yuzuki; Gives her money and lavish gifts  His affection for his daughter is the only true sign that there is some humanity in him.  He is devastated when she is called to serve at the Great Lord’s mansion as a lady’s maid.  Her intelligence and depth of character makes her a favorite of the Lady of the mansion

53  The Lord’s son is given a present of a monkey  He names the monkey “Yoshihide”  The monkey is a thief and a trouble maker  One day, Yuzuki comes upon the young Lord beating the monkey with a switch for its most recent theft  The monkey runs to her for help  She implores the young Lord not to beat the creature  The monkey is her constant companion

54  Yuzuki is noticed by the Great Lord presumably because of the change that she has wrought in the monkey’s personality  For her good work, he gives her a silk scarlet robe  Regarding this gift, the narrator says...

55 “It should be recalled that the Lord took the girl into his good graces because he had been impressed with her filial piety and not because he was an admirer of the gentle sex, as rumor had it.”

56  Soon after, the Lord summons the painter to his court  Commissions Yoshihide to paint a portrait of a cherub  Yoshihide creates such a spectacular painting that the Lord tells him he will grant any request the painter has

57  Yoshihide asks for his daughter’s release from the Great Lord’s service  The Great Lord denies this request The narrator informs us that...

58 “It seems in our eyes that his Lordship did not allow the girl to be dismissed from his service, because he took pity on her family circumstances...

59 ... and had graciously considered to keep her in his mansion and let her live in ease and comfort rather than to send her back to her cross, obstinate father...

60 ... However, it is a farfetched distortion of the fact to attribute all this to the amorous motives of his Lordship. No, I dare say that it is an entirely unfounded lie.”

61  More rumors swirl about the Lord’s obsession with Yuzuki  Yoshihide asks for Yuzuki’s release repeatedly  Many believe the commission of the hell screen was the result of Yuzuki spurning the Lord’s advances

62  The narrator informs the reader that Yoshihide completes the screen in horrific and terrifying detail but with great originality of style  The story ends with a general description of the completion of the screen  But then, the narrator begins anew...

63 The Tale Begins Again...  The painter approaches his work on the Hell Screen with total concentration:  There follows a series of encounters with his apprentices, in which he demands them to pose in dangerous situations  One is bound with heavy chains and his body contorted  One has a great owl set upon him  Prior to the above two incidents is a chilling in which one of the assistants goes into Yoshihide’s room while he is in a trance like state and hears him muttering,

64 “‘Come to the burning Hell. Come to the burning Hell.’ Whoever is this?... Who could it be but…?... H’m, its you. I expected it might be you... Have you come to meet me?”

65  After five or six months, Yoshihide completes the painting of the screen with the exception of one image  He has envisioned it but cannot paint it unless he sees it in actuality  This is the image of a royal carriage pulled by oxen, burning as it falls into Hell

66 An Encounter with the Monkey  Monkey draws the attention of the narrator one evening by behaving oddly and pulling at the narrator’s hem  Almost stumbles into Yuzuki, who has been accosted

67 Two Weeks Later...  Yoshihide is granted an audience with the Great Lord  Yoshihide is greatly disturbed  Reports on the status of the Hell Screen

68 The Screen’s Centerpiece “I am anxious to paint a nobleman’s magnificent carriage falling in mid- air in the very center of the screen... Allow me to describe the carriage.”

69 “In this vehicle, an elegant court lady, amidst raging flames, writhes in the agony of pain, with her black hair hanging loose about her shoulders....”

70 ... Choked with heavy black smoke, her face is turned up toward the roof of the carriage, with her brow tightly drawn. Around the carriage a score or more of ominous birds fly about, clicking their beaks...”

71 “Please, my Lord, burn a nobleman’s carriage before my eyes, and if possible,...”

72 ... The Grand Lord darkened his face for an instant but suddenly burst into a peal of laughter...

73 “All your wishes shall be granted. Don’t take the trouble to inquire about the possibility.”

74 “... Something black bounded like a ball without either touching the ground or flying through the air, and plunged straight from the roof of the mansion into the furiously burning carriage...

75 Amidst the burned crimson- lacquered lattice which was crumbling in pieces, it put its hands on the warped shoulders of the girl, and gave, out of the screens of black smoke, a long and piercing shriek of intense grief like the tearing of silk, then again two or three successive screams.

76 ... The instant the sparks shot up like thousands of shooting stars into the night air, the girl together with the monkey sank to the bottom of the whirling black smoke.

77 The Lord Abbot: Believed that “no matter how accomplished one might be in any branch of learning or art, one would have to be condemned to hell, if one were not endowed with the five cardinal virtues of Confucius – benevolence, justice, courtesy, wisdom, and fidelity.”

78 The Lord Abbot’s Reaction: As the screen was unrolled, he was struck by the painting: “‘Wonderful!’ the Abbot exclaimed in spite of himself, giving an involuntary tap on his knee.”

79 From that time on Hardly any one... spoke ill of the painter because... no one... could see the picture on the screen without being struck with its mysterious solemnity or being vividly impressed with its ghastly reality of the exquisite tortures in a burning hell.

80 However, by this time... Yoshihide had already departed this life. On the night of the day following the completion of his painting of the screen, he hanged himself by putting a rope over the beam of his room.

81 Critical Approaches  Formalist Criticism  Biographical Criticism  Historical Criticism  Psychological Criticism  Mythological Criticism  Sociological Criticism  Gender Criticism  Reader-Response Criticism  Deconstructionist Criticism  Cultural Studies Criticism


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