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Revolutionary Thoughts. 2 Age of Enlightenment The Great Awakening.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutionary Thoughts. 2 Age of Enlightenment The Great Awakening."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutionary Thoughts

2 2 Age of Enlightenment The Great Awakening

3 3 Revolutionary Thoughts Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 " Age of Reason" Scientific, Philosophical & Political Revolution European in origin Scientific Revolution Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 noted origin of world explained by folklore, myths man did not apply reason, "he was not enlightened” sequence of study, reason, test, repeat SEQUENCE OF LOGIC

4 4 Revolutionary Thoughts Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 Scientific Revolution Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 proposed ”laws of nature” can't be changed LAW OF GRAVITY a matter of mass (density of material) proposes it is a mechanical world (physics) GOD IS A WATCHMAKER THEORY intermeshing gears Prime Mover - analogy of ball on hill what causes this? wind/pressure/sun IDEA OF RATIONALITY

5 5 Revolutionary Thoughts Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 Philosophical Revolution VOLTAIRE 1694-1778 originator of the idea of Deism belief in a creator or originator God is a rationalist and is non personal God does not reveal himself nor a prescription for living Reasoning leads to tolerance of beliefs The Nature of man is good "Secular Humanism" SPIRITUAL REASONING

6 6 Revolutionary Thoughts Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 Political Revolution John Locke 1632-1704 a doctor interested in philosophy 1688 - time of bloodless revolution in England "Glorious Revolution" God is non-partial - therefore man is EQUAL IN HIS POLITICAL RIGHTS Each man has the right to LIFE, LIBERTY & PROPERTY (U.S. Jefferson & Franklin were American proponents)

7 7 Revolutionary Thoughts Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 Scientific Revolution Philosophical Revolution Political Revolution “WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness…: - Declaration of Independence

8 8 Revolutionary Thoughts The Great Awakening 1730-1740 Religious Revival in America tent revivals Scotch-Irish rural populations in the Appalachians Rebuttal to the Enlightenists Beginnings of Revival Dutch Reformed Church Frelinghuysen 1720's "to awaken to personal repentance" Scotch Irish Presbyterians Reverend Tennets -log college Methodists in England John Wesley

9 9 Revolutionary Thoughts The Great Awakening 1730-1740 Revivalists Jonathan Edwards Yale at 12, Pastor at 24 One of greatest minds George Whitefield predominant figure in New England can know God in a personal way Individualism in terms of getting to know God LOVING GOD in contrast to Anglican theology of a harsh god

10 10 Revolutionary Thoughts The Great Awakening 1730-1740 Results of the revival Growth of churches New denominations Growth of Education - schools of religion Religion personalized instead of institutionalized Religious Political connection INDIVIDUAL GOD *** People took this individuality and applied it to politics Direct Support of Individual Representation INDIVIDUAL POLITICS

11 11 Definitions Awakening is an old word that means essentially the same thing that “revival” does today A refreshening of spiritual fervor and devotion An outreach to the unconverted

12 12 Loss of Spiritual Devotion Population boom of the Americas and abundant natural resources generated a production explosion Colonists entered a period of unknown prosperity—became mobile Half way Covenant allowed non-church goers to retain their membership without voting rights—views dimly by leaders.

13 13 European Awakenings The Americans expericence had an antecedent in Europe known as Pietism in Germany In England, pietism was transferred by the Methodist preachers of Charles and John Wesley and by George Whitefield This gave people in America who heard Whitefield a sense that they were participating in a world wide revival

14 14 National Movements George Whitefield English evangelist who preached with the Wesleys—founders of Methodism Preached in the open air—out of need Spoke to an average of 8000 people daily for a solid month in 1740 Estimates are that he spoke directly to 80% of the entire colonial population

15 15 Part of Whitefield’s appeal was his delivery Was a former actor with great physical charisma Always made sure the upcoming town had prior knowledge of his previous successes in other places—set up a positive expectation for himself

16 16 Congregationalism in Mass Jonathan Edwards Graduated from Yale at 17—was brilliant Not a great speaker—read his sermons and did not look at anyone Preached directly to young people who he feared were becoming debauched Began home prayer and study groups Best contribution was a history of G.A.

17 17 New Jersey Theodore Freylinghuysen Born in Germany, came to America in 1719 with the Dutch reformed Church Did not like the way the church had become a nationalistic ritual Barred non-believers from communion Preached love over profession and moved his church members to greater devotion

18 18 Presbyterians in New Jersey Gilbert Tennent Like Freylinghuysen, believed his congregation was self satisfied and apathetic Tennent preached that only those who realize their need for God are truly part of the church Caused an outbreak of revivals by 1727

19 19 Division and Discord G.A. divided people into the “old” believers and church members and the “new” converts who joined after the revivals In New England, they were known as “old lights” and “new lights” Old lights considered it all “much ado about nothing” and the new lights often became extreme

20 20 Aftermath of the G.A. Sharp increase in church membership— especially among the previously unchurched Increases were not sustained and the effect of the GA on church membership leveled off within five years Churches reached out to the “weaker” members of society (slaved and NAs)

21 21 This outreach was purely spiritual however and G.A. did not condemn slavery or the mistreatment of Indians in terms of land claims Led slave owners to include their slaves in bible study, family prayer and other forms of worship Majority of slaves accepted Christianity

22 22 New Organizations Great Awakening spurred the creation of new divinity schools—were shut out of Harvard and Yale Princeton, Brown and Dartmouth were all a result of the G.A. New denominations were established, particularly Methodist and Baptist

23 23 Enlightenment F.G.A. was reaction by religious leaders to the Enlightenment Enlightenment sought to disassociate emotion from logic—or to liberate people from false beliefs or mystical thinking about things that had a scientific explanation Religious leaders saw the “scientific method” as a threat to their ministries

24 24 Politics, Economics, Education Thomas Paine, Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson inspired by Enlightenment In politics the Enlightenment inspired by John Locke provided concepts like “life, liberty and property”, the concept of popular sovereignty In economics, Enlightenment supported free trade Education was affected secular rationalism

25 25 Enlightenment and God Enlightenment thinkers emphasized the injustices of the church in the past Believed that Christianity was intolerant, superstitious and unreasonable Agreed that God was the creator of the universe, but saw God as an architect, not a father figure Re-wrote the bible to rid it of “myths”

26 26 Summary Age of Enlightenment 1700-1800 Scientific, Philosophical & Political Revolution Apply “reason” to achieve enlightenment Political Reason “all men are equal with equal rights” The Great Awakening 1730-1740 Religious Revival Individual and his importance to God Individual importance is connected to political importance Direct Support of Individual Representation

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