Presentation on theme: "The World at War AGAIN!. Unsuccessful Provisions for a safer world as set forth in the Treaty of Paris at the end of WWI were unsuccessful. Provisions."— Presentation transcript:
Unsuccessful Provisions for a safer world as set forth in the Treaty of Paris at the end of WWI were unsuccessful. Provisions for a safer world as set forth in the Treaty of Paris at the end of WWI were unsuccessful. The League of Nations faltered without American support The League of Nations faltered without American support Germany developed a strong military. Germany developed a strong military. Nazism grew in Germany Nazism grew in Germany Fascism grew in Italy. Fascism grew in Italy.
Rise of Fascism A political system based around the belief that the state or government is more important than the individual. A political system based around the belief that the state or government is more important than the individual. Countries under Fascist regimes built powerful armies to kill or intimidate anyone that threatened their authority. Countries under Fascist regimes built powerful armies to kill or intimidate anyone that threatened their authority. Extremely nationalistic and believed their race was superior to others. Extremely nationalistic and believed their race was superior to others. Believed they had the right to trample weaker nations and abuse inferior groups within their own country. Believed they had the right to trample weaker nations and abuse inferior groups within their own country.
Mussolini in Italy Italian dictator since 1922. Italian dictator since 1922. Created the Fascist party with himself as the leader, and forbid all other political parties. Created the Fascist party with himself as the leader, and forbid all other political parties. Popular slogan: “Believe!, Obey!, Fight!” Popular slogan: “Believe!, Obey!, Fight!” Benito Mussolini
Germany Following WWI People of Germany were upset about losing World War I. People of Germany were upset about losing World War I. They removed their king and established a democracy. They removed their king and established a democracy. Economy took a nose dive in 1923 due to inflation (steady rise in prices of goods). Economy took a nose dive in 1923 due to inflation (steady rise in prices of goods). Democratic government was criticized for being weak. Democratic government was criticized for being weak.
Hitler and Nazism Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazis). Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazis). Blamed Germany’s problems on others. Blamed Germany’s problems on others. Promised wealth and prosperity for Germany. Promised wealth and prosperity for Germany. Preached against Democracy and Jews. Preached against Democracy and Jews. Became Chancellor of Germany in 1933. Became Chancellor of Germany in 1933. Soon after declared himself dictator and gave himself the title “der Führer” Soon after declared himself dictator and gave himself the title “der Führer” Adolf Hitler
Empire of Japan Hurt by the depression, Japan relied on importing rice and raw materials from other countries. Hurt by the depression, Japan relied on importing rice and raw materials from other countries. Radicals who gained control of the government felt that invasion of other countries was the only way to survive. Radicals who gained control of the government felt that invasion of other countries was the only way to survive. Japan invaded Indo-China in 1937. Japan invaded Indo-China in 1937. US placed an oil embargo on Japan due to their invasion of Indo-China. US placed an oil embargo on Japan due to their invasion of Indo-China. Japan signs alliance with Germany in 1940. Japan signs alliance with Germany in 1940.
American Isolationism Following WWI, the U.S. took on a culture of isolationism. Following WWI, the U.S. took on a culture of isolationism. The U.S. did not want to get involved in another European War. The U.S. did not want to get involved in another European War. The U.S. did initiate the Lend-Lease Program, which provided ships, planes, and military supplies to Allied countries. The U.S. did initiate the Lend-Lease Program, which provided ships, planes, and military supplies to Allied countries. Germany felt that the U.S. was involved in the war by providing supplies, and thus could be targeted by U-Boats. Germany felt that the U.S. was involved in the war by providing supplies, and thus could be targeted by U-Boats.
German Land Aquisition Took control of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland (all Germanic speaking countries). Took control of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland (all Germanic speaking countries). Hitler wanted to create a Third Reich (empire). Hitler wanted to create a Third Reich (empire). Many European leaders appeased Hitler by allowing some of these take-overs in order to prevent another war. Many European leaders appeased Hitler by allowing some of these take-overs in order to prevent another war.
More Nazi Land Acquisition April 1940 (Defeated by Germany) April 1940 (Defeated by Germany) –Denmark –Norway May 1940 (Defeated by Germany) May 1940 (Defeated by Germany) –Belgium –Luxembourg –Netherlands June 1940 (Surrender/Armistice) June 1940 (Surrender/Armistice) –France
Battle of Britain Began in 1940 Began in 1940 German heavy bombing of England. German heavy bombing of England. Conducted 24 hrs a day. Conducted 24 hrs a day. London was heavily hit. London was heavily hit. British used a new technology called “radar” to detect incoming Germany bombers. British used a new technology called “radar” to detect incoming Germany bombers. Hitler finally withdrew the bombing. Hitler finally withdrew the bombing.
Japan Justifies an Attack on America Oil embargo placed on Japan by the U.S. If American Pacific fleet was destroyed, they wouldn’t be able to prevent Japan from it’s conquests in Asia. Hitler felt that if the U.S. was involved in a War in the Pacific, they couldn’t help out their Allies in Europe.
America Unprepared An Attack on Pearl Harbor Thought Impossible The harbor is too shallow for a torpedo attack. Sabotage by people of Japanese decent living on the island was more probable. Planes bunched up at air fields to prevent sabotage. No clear warnings of an attack at Pearl. Admiral Kimmel felt that being at a constant state of readiness weakened a military unit. Radar warning of incoming planes dismissed as a squadron of B-17’s inbound from the mainland. Fleet at anchor in harbor every weekend.
The Attack Sunday Dec. 7, 1941 7:55AM Japanese fighters begin attack on Pearl. 5 of 8 Battleships were sunk or sinking. Aircraft bases and planes destroyed. 2400 Americans were killed.
The Aftermath USS Arizona WreckageUSS Oklahoma Sunk
Salvage & Recovery Efforts USS Arizona Salvage DiversRaising the USS Oklahoma
Reflections on Pearl Harbor Senator Daniel Inouye reflects on the attack on Pearl Harbor. Radio broadcasts announce the tragedy in Hawaii.
Dec. 8, 1941 Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt asks Congress to declare a state of war against the Empire of Japan. Congress complies with FDR’s request.
America Initiates its War Machine War Production Board: Directed the conversion and re-tooling of factories left empty from the Great Depression into operation war time factories. Supervised the building of new factories. Manufacturing shift towards war materials. General Motors was able to produce more war supplies than Germany and Japan combined.
Economic Changes Government increased taxes. War bonds were sold in order to keep inflation rates down. Rationing of products began. Items included: Gasoline Heating Fuel Tires Coffee Sugar Meat Butter Canned Goods
Clothing Changes In order to save fabric the following changes occurred in clothes manufacturing: No pleats on women’s skirts. No cuffs on men’s pants. Women’s nylons were virtually non- existent due to the use of nylon in parachute manufacturing.
Civilians Take on an Active Role Plant Victory Gardens To help supply vegetables. By 1943 accounted for 1/3 of the nations vegetable supply. Victory Garden Poster
Civilians Take on an Active Roll #2 U.S. re-institutes the draft. Women rolled up their sleeves and went to work in factories. (referred to as “Rosie the Riveter”) Rosie the Riveter Poster
Raising an Army Posters such as this help recruit soldiers to fight in WWII. It was expected in society for any able bodied male between 18-37 to enlist. Men would be looked down upon for not enlisting.
Selective Training & Service Act Passed in 1940 (before Pearl Harbor). Provided for the first peace time draft in the nation’s history. Required the registration of all men between 21-35 (later extended from 18-37).
Women Enlisted Too Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps WAAC’s Women’s Air force Service Pilots WASP’s Women’s Navy Auxiliary WAVE’s Women’s Coast Guard Auxiliary SPAR’s
Women Serve Overseas Most women served on the homefront. Others served overseas tending to wounded soldiers. Army Nurse Corps (ANC) Navy Nurse Corps (NNC)
Paranoia Sets In U.S. fears sabotage from people of Japanese ancestry. Executive Order 9066 President FDR orders people of Japanese ancestry on the west coast and near military installations to be moved to internment camps. Camp locations: Arizona (Gila River, Poston) Arkansas (Jerome, Rohwer) California (Manzanar, Tule Lake) Colorado (Granada) Idaho (Minidoka) Utah (Topaz) Wyoming (Heart Mountain There were many Japanese Americans who fought on the European front of the war. Internment Train
The March on Washington African and Mexican Americans were still being discriminated against in the U.S. Pres. Roosevelt issued an executive order that forbid racial discrimination in defense plants and govt. offices. The Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) was created to enforce the order.
Allied Attacks in the Mediterranean Nov. 1942, Allied forces landed in Northwest Africa. Invasion code-named Operation Torch Led by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. After several fierce battles, Axis forces surrendered in May 1943.
Invasion of Italy Summer 1943, Allies conquered Sicily. Sept., Italian govt. signed an armistice with the Allies. Allies next move was to invade the Italian mainland.. June 1944, Rome became the first Axis capital to fall to the Allies.
Victory in Europe Germans still controlled the Atlantic due largely to their u-boats. Allies refinement of sonar equipment and increasing number of fast escorts ships helped the situation. By 1944, the Allies had won the Battle of the Atlantic. During this time, the Allies also increased their strategic bombing program.
Invasion of France Victory in the Pacific and air attacks on Germany paved the way for Operation Overlord This was the long awaited land assault on German occupied France. Invasion of Beach on D-Day
D-Day Continued On June 6, 1944 nearly 5,000 troop transports, landing craft, and warships carried 150,000 soldiers to the beaches of Normandy, France. Planes dropped 23,000 airborne soldiers. American, British, and Canadian forces participated. Airborne Troops on D-Day
D-Day: Hitler’s Mistake Hitler believed the main force was coming from the north and thus refused to send reinforcements. Allies liberated Paris on Aug. 25, 1944. Paris Liberated
Battle of the Bulge Last major counter attack by Hitler. Followed the Allies crossing the German border. Began using V-2 long range rockets. 200,000 Germans attack the Allied force of 80,000. By Jan.1945, it was apparent the Allies would be victorious.
Yalta Conference Feb. 1945 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to plan for postwar peace. Leaders agreed to divide and occupy Germany, and outlined plans for a new international peace organization. Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
Hitler’s End and V.E. Day April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide in his deep bunker under the ruins of Berlin, for fear of being captured. Soviets occupy Berlin. German forces all over the country stopped fighting. Germans surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945. Victory in Europe (V.E.) Day May 8, 1945. In June, Germany divided into 4 occupied zones.
Mussolini Mutilated Mussolini and his wife hung. Bodies hung out in Rome for the people to do with what they want.
Holocaust Discovered As Allied troops took over land formerly controlled by Germany, concentration camps were discovered. Medical experiments had been performed on many prisoners. Allied soldiers discovered gas chambers and cremation furnaces.
Concentration Camp Horror Warning: If you don’t want to see these, please look away!
Concentration Camp Horror #2 Eli Weisel, Author of “Night” in which he writes about his life while imprisoned at Buchenwald
Doolittle’s Raiders Bomb Tokyo April 1942 Led by Jimmy Doolittle Felt as the first part of revenge for Pearl Harbor. Bombing of Tokyo. Jimmy Doolittle was raised in Nome, AK.
Turning the Tide in the Pacific June 1942. Ferocious 3 day battle Battle of Midway turned the tide in the Pacific. Large victory for the U.S.
Pacific Offenses Island Hopping: Instead of attacking all islands, Allies only attacked strategic Japanese held islands. Gilbert Island: Nov.1943. Marshal Islands Marianna Islands: Summer 1944. Battle of the Philippine Sea: Summer 1944. (Decisive U.S. Victory).
Battle of Leyte Gulf October 1944. Last, largest, and most decisive naval engagement in the Pacific. Japanese lost a large part of its fleet. No longer a serious threat to the Allies.
Victory in the Pacific Douglas MacArthur: commander of all U.S. Army troops in the Pacific. Gen. Douglas MacArthur
Battle of Iwo Jima February 1945. Mt. Suribachi First native Japanese soil invaded by Americans during WWII. Flag Raising on Mt. Suribachi
Battle of Okinawa April 1945. Only 350 miles from Japan. Perhaps the bloodiest battle of the Pacific War. Battle of Okinawa
U.S. in Mourning April 12, 1945. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies.
A New President Vice President Harry Truman becomes the new President.
Manhattan Project Started in 1942. Involved the development of atomic bombs. Scientists who had escaped from Nazi occupied Europe, helped in the development.
Preventative Action Pres. Truman and U.S. military commanders worried about the high loss of life if the U.S. invaded the Japanese mainland. The Japanese were expected to fight till the end to defend their island. The President was left with a tough decision.
Decision Made President Truman decides to drop atomic bombs on two Japanese cities. The Enola Gay was the B-25 used to drop the bomb on Heroshima. Bock’s Car was the B-25 used to drop the bomb on Nagasaki.
Bombing of Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese industrial city of Hiroshima. 100,000 Killed U.S. had dropped warning messages earlier, instructing people to leave the city. Little Boy A-Bomb Mushroom Cloud
Bombing of Nagasaki The U.S. had expected the Japanese to surrender following the bombing of Hiroshima. August 9, 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on the city of Nagasaki. Fat Man A-Bomb Mushroom Cloud
Japanese Surrender September 2, 1945. Emperor Hirohito signs the surrender. Ceremony held aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
World War II is OVER! Celebrating in Times Square – New York
WWII Memorialized Many memorials have been built to commemorate and remember those that lost their lives in World War II. Some were built shortly after and others have been built within the last few years.
40 th Anniversary of D-Day June 6, 1984. President Reagan gives a speech at a U.S. cemetery in Normandy, France. Speech Video Link