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Screen 1 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson you will.

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Presentation on theme: "Screen 1 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson you will."— Presentation transcript:

1 Screen 1 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson you will be able to: identify the major report types used to present food security information; understand the key features of these alternative report types; and structure a food security report for various contexts and purposes.

2 Screen 2 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Introduction How should you structure reports? The context and purpose that you are writing for, are complex and unique. Therefore, each report should be tailored to the needs of the primary audience.

3 Screen 3 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Here is a review of the main steps for planning a report: Defining the purpose for your report Identifying the readers Addressing a significant problem and answering the right questions Providing readers with actionable recommendations REPORT OUTLINE But what type of report will you produce?

4 Screen 4 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Research Reports It is a Report on a piece of research that you have conducted on food security in your country or region. For example, a baseline report or a study on vulnerability

5 Screen 5 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Early Warning Bulletins Early warning is about providing a glimpse of the future. These reports provide decision makers with an indication of whether a food security problem is emerging.

6 Screen 6 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Needs Assessment Reports Emergency Needs Assessments provide governments, relief organisations and the wider international community with information to plan an immediate response in the aftermath of a crisis.

7 Screen 7 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Policy Papers or Briefs Food security information and analysis is required to inform the development of relevant policies. Policy papers or briefs start from a stated need or problem, and provide a selection of options. For example, you may have been asked to examine policy options for establishing a national safety net.

8 Screen 8 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Reporting formats used in various food security contexts Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Reports M&E is a process of assessing an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy. A monitoring report checks progress and recommends remedial actions. An evaluation report looks at the impact and recommends whether to continue, modify or stop the project, programme or policy.

9 Screen 9 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Selecting the best report type Report TypeFrequencyPrimary purposes Infrequent Communicates an increased understanding of food security Contributes to long-term development planning Continuous Informs decision makers of current levels and trends in food security Activates and focuses needs assessment and mitigation plans As needed Identifies the extent and impact of a humanitarian emergency Recommends an appropriate emergency response Mobilizes resources Infrequent Defines an urgent policy issue Identifies and evaluates policy options Recommends a preferred alternative Continuous (monitoring) Periodic (evaluation) Assesses progress against targets Recommends changes to activities and design Mobilizes resources Baseline or Research Report Early Warning Bulletin Emergency Needs Assessment Policy Papers or Briefs Monitoring &Evaluation Reports (Programs and Policies)

10 Screen 10 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Selecting the best report type In the real-world, the different report types often combine. For example, you might see: elements of policy recommendation combined with a research report; or an early warning bulletin that incorporates recommendations on emergency needs.

11 Screen 11 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Selecting the best report type What is the outline of each type of report? Policy Papers or Briefs Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Reports Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Reports Research Reports Early Warning Bulletins Needs Assessment Reports

12 Screen 12 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Research Reports You may undertake ‘research’ in order to better understand the nature of food security in a country or region. Research Reports For example, you might research: What are the basic livelihoods of groups? What are known or likely hazards that they might face? What is the likelihood of these occurring? Who are the most vulnerable groups?

13 Screen 13 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Research Reports Your research may be based on: primary sources (field work): or secondary sources ( analysing previous surveys, other published research or talking to people). The report presents your data and draws conclusions from it. The emphasis is on analysis and contributing to an increased understanding of the issue. While preliminary recommendations may be included, this type of report may not provide systematic recommendations.

14 Screen 14 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Research Reports draw the conclusions based upon that data. Problem and objectives Methodology Data Conclusions The typical research report might follow the same chronological order as your research. discuss the issues that led to undertaking the research work discuss the data collection methodology discuss the data itself

15 Screen 15 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Research type papers commonly include the following elements: Title Table of Contents Executive summary Background and purpose Review of literature Method and procedure Findings and results Discussion, conclusions and recommendations Appendices Bibliography Introduction Formats for Research Reports

16 Screen 16 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Let us look at a couple of examples of research type reports: Formats for Research Reports Background reports As part of developing a PRSP you may be asked to help prepare a vulnerability and poverty analysis. This report is used to increase understanding of local livelihoods, existing conditions, and capacities for dealing with risk. It is the starting point to develop the PRSP. Baseline reports An FSIS may undertake a baseline survey, and a baseline report is used to present findings from this survey. It serves as a reference point for future assessments. Please look at the annex “Djibouti Profile & Baseline.pdf” to read an example of a baseline report. Please look at the annex “Georgia FS Brief Issue20.pdf” to read an example of a Background report.

17 Screen 17 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Research Reports As you develop your research paper, you should consider a series of questions. The most important one is: Does your research report achieve its purpose and communicate an increased understanding of the topic that you have investigated?

18 Screen 18 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Research Reports Then, check the following elements: title headings executive summary objectives description of methods and procedures summary of previous studies presentation of original data findings and conclusions recommendations appendices

19 Screen 19 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Early Warning Bulletins Early Warning Bulletins Examples of critical questions addressed by an early warning bulletin: Is there a problem emerging? What areas are affected and how quickly is the problem developing? What response is already underway? Are more in-depth assessments needed? An important function of most food security information systems is to provide early warning of an impending food security crisis.

20 Screen 20 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Early Warning Bulletins The primary audience includes: staff of national Governments, donors, and other humanitarian agencies. The EW bulletin needs to keep key decision makers informed of the situation. The report may be used to stimulate further action.

21 Screen 21 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Early Warning Bulletins An early warning bulletin may include the following elements: Problem description Title Table of Contents Summary Recommendations Please look at the annexes “FSAU December report.pdf”, and “Kenya FEWS Bulletin.pdf” to read examples of Early Warning Bulletins.

22 Screen 22 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types As you develop your research paper,you should consider a series of questions. The most important one is: Does your bulletin achieve its purpose of informing decision makers of current levels and trends in food security? Formats for Early Warning Bulletins

23 Screen 23 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Then, check the following elements: title table of contents summary recommendations problem description Formats for Early Warning Bulletins

24 Screen 24 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Needs Assessment Reports Needs Assessment Reports An emerging food security problem may trigger a needs assessment exercise, to establish the extent and the right response to the emergency. Examples of critical questions addressed by a Needs Assessment Report: What is nature and dimensions of the problem? How long is it going to last? Who are the most vulnerable groups? What and how much is needed; what is the best response?

25 Screen 25 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Needs Assessment Reports The primary audience includes: planners and managers in government departments, donors, and other humanitarian agencies. The assessment report will need to communicate these findings to a primary audience. The report may be used to support decision making on: programming, resource mobilization, and advocacy.

26 Screen 26 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Needs Assessment Reports commonly include the following elements: Title Table of Contents Executive summary Objectives and methodology Background Problem description Conclusions and recommendations Appendices Introduction Formats for Needs Assessment Reports Please look at the annexes “Malawi VAC Report.pdf”, and “Sri Lanka ENA.pdf ” to read examples of Needs Assessment Reports.

27 Screen 27 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Needs Assessment Reports As you develop Needs Assessment Report,you should consider a series of questions. The most important one is: Does your paper achieve its purpose of presenting clear recommendations on the appropriate response(s) to the current crisis?

28 Screen 28 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Needs Assessment Reports Then, check the following elements: title headings problem description table of Contents response alternatives framework of analysis conclusions and recommendations appendices

29 Screen 29 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Policy Making papers Policy Papers or Briefs Policy making is a process of identifying real world problems, formulating solutions and a course of action to follow. IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS IMPLEMENTING ACTIONS FORMULATING SOLUTIONS

30 Screen 30 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types A policy paper is a decision-making tool. CONTEXT & EVIDENCE RECOMMENDATIONS The aim of the report is to develop a set of recommendations for action (and not to gather and analyze data about a policy problem (i.e. research). Formats for Policy Making papers

31 Screen 31 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Achieving this purpose usually involves: Recommending a preferred alternative (policy recommendation) and providing a strong argument to establish why your choice is the best possible option. Evaluating the probable outcomes of these potential options. Outlining the possible ways (policy alternatives) in which this issue can be addressed. Defining an urgent policy issue which needs to be addressed. Formats for Policy Making papers

32 Screen 32 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Policy papers commonly include the following elements: Title Table of Contents Executive summary Problem description Policy options Conclusions and recommendations Appendices Bibliography Introduction Formats for Policy Making papers

33 Screen 33 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Please look at the annexes “ODI Social Protection Policy Paper.pdf”, (produced by an academic) and “Oxfam cash distributions.pdf” (produced by an NGO) to read examples of policy papers. The format and structure of the policy paper will be adapted to the purpose and primary audience. For example, if you are working for government: a relatively formal policy paper may be most suitable for reaching policy makers. Or if you are a stakeholder outside of government and you want to target a broader audience though the media: in this case, a report might contain the same main message, but in a simplified form. Formats for Policy Making papers

34 Screen 34 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types As you develop your policy paper or brief, you should consider a series of questions. The most important one is: Does your paper achieve its purpose of presenting an effective argument, to the primary audience, for your preferred policy option? Formats for Policy Making papers

35 Screen 35 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Then, check the following elements: title headings executive summary presentation of the policy problem and alternatives framework of analysis conclusions and recommendations appendices Formats for Policy Making papers

36 Screen 36 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Reports Monitoring Managers must keep track of progress during the implementation of programmes and projects. Evaluation Evaluations assess the worth of the project or programme. An evaluation will examine the impact and results. The strategies and policies themselves need to be continuously planned, reviewed, modified and re-planned.

37 Screen 37 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation The policies, programmes and projects you are reporting on, will usually have some type of design/planning framework. This framework provides the basis for the assessment exercise.

38 Screen 38 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation An M&E process will report on what happened, and how this compared to what was intended. On the basis of this analysis, recommendations will be made. For monitoring reports the primary audience will be: internal managers, and donors. Evaluation reports may target a broader number of external decision makers.

39 Screen 39 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation M&E reports commonly include the following elements: Title Table of Contents Executive summary Findings Conclusions and recommendations Appendices Introduction

40 Screen 40 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation Please look at the annexes “UN MDG Report 2005.pdf”, and “6563-Nepal_MDG_Progress_Report_2005.pdf” to read examples of this type of report. The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Monitoring Report is an important example of a monitoring report that a FSIS might contribute to. Every developing Country has agreed to produce a MDG monitoring report by the end of 2005.

41 Screen 41 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation As you develop a monitoring or evaluation report you should consider a series of questions. The most important one is: Does your report achieve its purpose of summarizing progress and providing recommended actions?

42 Screen 42 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Formats for Monitoring and Evaluation Then, check the following elements: title headings executive summary the description of what the policy/program/project set out to do framework of analysis conclusions and recommendations appendices

43 Screen 43 of 43 Reporting Food Security Information Reporting Formats for Food Security Report Types Summary Report TypeFrequencyPrimary purposes Infrequent Communicates an increased understanding of food security Contributes to long-term development planning Continuous Informs decision makers of current levels and trends in food security Activates and focuses needs assessment and mitigation plans As needed Identifies the extent and impact of a humanitarian emergency Recommends an appropriate emergency response Mobilizes resources Infrequent Defines an urgent policy issue Identifies and evaluates policy options Recommends a preferred alternative Continuous (monitoring) Periodic (evaluation) Assesses progress against targets Recommends changes to activities and design Mobilizes resources Baseline or Research Report Early Warning Bulletin Emergency Needs Assessment Policy Papers or Briefs Monitoring &Evaluation Reports (Programs and Policies)


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