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Animal Production Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Small Acreage Animal Production Overview Adapted version of presentation by R. Battaglia.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Production Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Small Acreage Animal Production Overview Adapted version of presentation by R. Battaglia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Production Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Small Acreage Animal Production Overview Adapted version of presentation by R. Battaglia AVS, University of Idaho

2 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching  Marketing  Animal of choice  Temperament choice  Site suitability  Zoning restrictions  Facilities required  Intent of enterprise  Source of animals  Nutrition  Feeds and Feeding Small Acreage Animal Management Considerations

3 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching  Pasture & grazing system  Animal health  Reproduction  Transport requirements  Legal issues  Waste management  Dead animal disposal  Financial planning  Capital budget  Operating cash  Time commitment Considerations continued…

4 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Types of Livestock Enterprises  True “production” operation  Service operation Boarding Pheasant hunting Horse drawn sleighrides

5 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Temperament Match  Type “A” or type “B”  Large stature or small stature  Physical or cerebral  Young or more mature

6 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Site Type/Suitability & Zoning Restrictions  Site size  Animal requirements  Site suitability  Zone class/restrictions

7 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Intent of Enterprise  Is it a “hobby”? Can be a wonderful idea, great pastime  Is it “for profit”? Can take all the fun out of it  Tax ramifications are complex! Tax preparers will make a profit

8 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Marketing Sine qua non That which without there is nothing else

9 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Source of Animals  Private treaty breeders Established Short-term  Production sales  Liquidation sales  Sale barns  Livestock markets

10 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Nutritional Requirements  One of the operational cornerstones  Documented requirements  Energy – total digestible nutrients  Protein – total and digestible  Minerals – macro & micro  Vitamins  Water

11 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Feedstuffs  Cereals (grains)  Milling by-products  Liquids (i.e. molasses)  Roots and tubers  Fats and oils  Miscellaneous plant and animal products

12 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Feeds and Feeding  Forages – fresh, dry, ensiled  Concentrates – grains, supplements  Minerals – salt/mineral mix  Vitamins – not always necessary to add  Water  Some good “rules of thumb”

13 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Feeds and Feeding Rules of Thumb  Pasture, hays, silages, aftermath When green and growing, can provide it all When mature and dry, some energy - filler  2 to 50 ac pasture/A UM, depending…  Legume pasture will provide carbohydrates and protein  Grass pasture will provide CHO, but will short CHON earlier  Provide plenty of water

14 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching continued…  Legume and grass 50-55% TDN  Legume 14-22% TP  Grass 10-14% TP  Grass and legume hays are calcium sources  Provide 2-3% BW with no concern

15 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching continued…  Grains provide TDN  Most grains will provide 8-10%TP  Grains are good sources of phosphorus  Non-lactating animals – ½% BW  Can overfeed grains Founder, enterotoxemia

16 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Animal of Choice  Type Are you going to be traditional or “exotic”  Breed Networking or stand-alone  Product Marketability

17 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Diet and Nutrition - Swine  Naturally omnivorous  Monogastric – less ability to digest complex carbohydrates and fiber  Require certain essential amino acids  Large operations – highly fortified grain based diets

18 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Diet and Nutrition - Poultry  Lots of variations due to types of poultry  Limiting essential amino acids  Essential vitamins  Corn and soybeans are the major source of protein, U.S.

19 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Diet and Nutrition - Beef Cattle  Ruminants  Grazed forages  Hay  Supplemental grains

20 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Diet and Nutrition - Sheep  Ruminants  Grazed forages  Hay  Fat lambs – supplemental grains/feeds MAY be supplied

21 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Diet and Nutrition - Goats  Ruminants  Prefer fresh, clean, and previously untouched feed.  Eat a better balanced diet if offered better feed to select from.  Browsers, not grazers  Can utilize grain

22 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Animal Health Program  No short cuts  Driven by region and locale  Veterinary assisted  Preventative and emergency

23 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Health Concerns  Size of area – proper spacing for animals  Health care may be proportionally more costly due to smaller number of animals  Preventative health care is key  Healthy living conditions – access to appropriate feed, water, exercise and fresh air is critical.

24 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Common concerns for all animals  Confinement or free range  Organic, natural or conventional  Availability of vaccines or medicines (also effective preventative medicines)  Management can make a big difference  Veterinarian relationship

25 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Specific health concerns  Poultry Coccidiosis Dietary diseases  Sheep Not a lot of sheep specific medications/vaccines

26 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Reproduction  Makes or breaks a production unit  Livestock “cycle” through periods of estrus or “heat  Mostly, livestock are seasonally polyestrus  You must learn to manage this phenomenon

27 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Transportation Requirements  Can be a huge investment  Cannot be “borrowed” every time

28 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Legal Issues – Selling, Processing, Butchering  As hard as it is to accept, you may be told what you can and cannot do, at your own operation

29 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Waste Management and Dead Animal Disposal  These must be done promptly and to the letter of the law

30 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Manure Management Concerns  Contamination, especially of water (surface and ground)  Odor  Pests  Disease concerns – i.e. pneumonia in confinement pigs due to high levels of ammonia

31 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Manure Management  Application to fields Spreading on fields Irrigation application Avoid spreading unwanted organisms, weeds, etc.  Composting

32 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Financial Planning, Capital Budget, Operating Cash  Great idea, if hobby enterprise; essential, if this is “for profit”  Lifestyle decision are being made…  The operating “line” will be greater than you think…

33 Sustainable Small Acreage Farming & Ranching Time Commitment  Think “24-7, 365 days a year…”  Labor of love…  Lifestyle commitment…


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