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Pakistan The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was founded as an

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1 Pakistan The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was founded as an
independent nation in 1947 following the end of colonial rule in the South Asian sub-continent.

2 Pakistan Pakistan was founded on the principle of establishing a
home-land for the Muslims of India. Today 97% of Pakistan’s population is Muslim.

3 Pakistan The founding father of Pakistan was Mohamed Ali Jinnah.
Born in Karachi and educated in law at Lincoln’s Inn, London, Jinnah presented the arguments for a separate home-land for India’s Muslims. Mohamed Ali Jinnah

4 Pakistan The concept of a separate Muslim
state was envisioned by the poet- philosopher Dr. Mohammed “Allama” Iqbal around 1930. This concept would take root over the next several years. Dr. Mohammed Iqbal

5 Pakistan In 1933 a student in England named Chaudhry Rehmat Ali
wrote a paper titled “Now Or Never: Are We to Live or Perish For Ever?” In this paper, he offered the name “PAKSTAN” to designate the areas of northwest India where Muslims were in majority. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali

6 Pakistan Today Pakistan has four major provinces: 1-Punjab
2- North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 3- Balochistan 4- Sindh Also there are regions known as the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas. To the north is the disputed state of Kashmir.

7 Pakistan Rehmat Ali formed the name “PAKSTAN” by taking the letters from different regions of India’s northeast provinces as follows: P - Punjab A - Afghania (the NorthWest Frontier Province) K - Kashmir S - Sindh TAN - BalochisTAN The “I” was added later for ease in pronunciation to give the name: “PAKISTAN”

8 Pakistan The Pakistan Flag was designed by Ameer-ud-din Khidwai.
The white represents Minorities and the dark green field represents the Muslim majority. The crescent on the Flag represents progress. The five-rayed star represents light and knowledge.

9 Pakistan The region’s history is traced to a 5000 year old civilization that flourished in the Indus Valley of modern day Pakistan. The inhabitants of that era, called Dravidians, lived in two major cities: Harrappa and Mohenjodaro. These cities are were uncovered by archeologists in the early 20th century. The Indus Valley traded with the Mesopotamian and Nile civilizations.

10 Pakistan The Indus Valley civilization declined due to several factors including natural disaster, environmental depletion, and epidemics. Ultimately the Dravidians were conquered by invaders from central Asia. The invading Aryans drove the Dravidians out of Indus Valley pushing them further south, while some Dravidians were enslaved by the Aryans. The Aryan’s impact has given the region the Sanskrit language, and the foundations of the Hindu religion based on mythological accounts of the Aryans. These legendary accounts are described in the Ramayana and Mahabharat, which tells a of great war fought amongst the Aryan people. The Aryans set themselves apart from the Dravidians, forming a strict social system of caste distinction.

11 Pakistan The Aryans called the land “Septa Sindhu”, for the seven rivers that presently flow through the region - “Septa” being a word for “Seven” and “Sindhu” a word for “water”. The seven rivers today are (1) the Kabul river that flows from Afghanistan, (2) the Jhelum, (3) the Ravi, (4) the Chenab, (5) the Sutlej, all flowing from the Himalayas, and (6) the Beas which feeds into the Sutlej. These six rivers merge into one single mighty river called (7) the Indus. The name “Septa Sindhu”, was shortened to “Sindhu” and also pronounced “Hindu” in some Persian dialects. From this the Roman scholar Pliny derived the name “Indus” which formed the name by which the rest of the world came to know the region: “India”.

12 Pakistan Around 540BC a prince named Siddharta left his wife and son, and surrendered his luxurious lifestyle to seek true happiness and the meaning of life. He joined monks in a Hindu monastery and went through long periods of fasting until he reached a moment of awareness he described as “Nirvana” or enlightenment. He went on to found Buddhism, a religion described as “faith without a god”. Today Buddhism is practiced largely in the far East.

13 Pakistan Alexander of Macedonia entered the Indus Valley via the Khyber Pass around 320BC. Alexander had defeated the Persians at Persepolis and was moving his army further east. From the Himalaya mountains, he traveled south along the Indus River down to the Arabian Sea. From there he made his return trip home (he died in Babylon during the journey). Alexander’s influence on the region is still felt today. The Kalash, a tribal people in Pakistan’s northern mountains revere Alexander the Great.

14 Pakistan Shortly after Alexander, the first sub-continental empire was founded by Chandragupta. His grand- son Ashoka spread Buddhism across the region. By 100AD rapid developments saw Parthians establish their court in what is Taxila of present day Pakistan. Another group of people known as Scythians advanced to the south near the Indus delta and moved further towards Gujrat. These changes resulted in the formation of a vast kingdom called the Kushan Empire. The region prospered from international trade encouraged by the Kushans. This period saw the creation of the world renowned Gandhara Art. The Kushan era ended around 600AD as the Sassanians of Persia eroded the Kurshan’s trade power. Invasion by Huns who married into wealthy families ultimately destroyed the great empire.

15 Pakistan The end of the Kushan period opened a new chapter in the region’s history. To the west, from Arabia, a new religion had been founded and was spreading rapidly. Islam would make its way to the sub-continent where it would have a significant and lasting impact. The first encounters were with Muslim traders. Arabian security forces were engaged for the protection of Muslim pilgrims from pirates. During this time there were exploratory expeditions into Makran, what is now Pakistan’s south west coastline. In 711AD a 17 year old lieutenant named Mohammed Bin Qassim lead a military expedition into the Indus Valley. This expedition is regarded as the official entry of Islam into the region. In the 10th century Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi entered from the north. The first Muslim ruler to hold court in Delhi was Qutub-uddin Aybak, during the 12th century. Several Muslim dynasties were to follow.

16 Pakistan Qutub-uddin Aybak, himself once a slave, established what is known as the Slave Dynasty that ruled for several decades. Other rulers during this period include Shams- ud-din Iltutmush and Ghiyas-ud-din Balban. The Slave Dynasty was followed by the Khaljis from 1290 to The Tughlaq Dynasty followed from 1320 to 1412. The Sayed Dynasty ruled from 1412 to The Sayeds were followed by the Lodhi Dynasty from 1451 to The Lodhis were able to capture some states that had become independent during the Tughlaq and Sayed periods.

17 Pakistan The last of the great Muslim dynasties was the Moghul Empire founded in 1526AD by Zaheeruddin Babur who defeated Ibrahim Lodhi at the First Battle of Panipat. The Moghul rule was interrupted when Babur’s successor, Himanyun was driven out of Delhi by Sher Shah Suri. With aid from the Persians Himanyun regained his throne. The first six Moghul rulers were considered the greatest. During the rule of the 4th Moghul, Jehangir, an Englishman named Thomas Roe visited the Moghul court seeking trade. Shortly afterwards the British East India Company was established. The Moghul era began a slow decline following the death of the 6th Moghul Emperor, Aurengzeb. As the Moghuls declined the East India Company gained power from its profitable trade.

18 Pakistan The Battle of Plassey in Bengal, saw Robert Clive defeat Nawab Sirajudaullah. A year later Clive became Governor of Bengal. From Bengal the British gained more control on the region. END OF MOGHUL DYNASTY A rebellion erupted, called “Mutiny” by some, and “War for Independence” by others. With the British victory, the last Moghul Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was exiled to Burma. The aftermath of the war saw increasing mistrust between Muslims and Hindus. India was now a colony under the British Raj.

19 Pakistan 1885 - Indian National Congress Party founded.
Muslim League party founded, initially working to protect Muslim rights. The party shifted its focus towards independence several years later. The Lucknow Pact, authored by Muslim League President Mohamed Ali Jinnah, formed an agreement between the Muslim League and Congress Party to work for independence. Massacre at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar saw British soldiers open fire on unarmed civilians assembled for a peace gathering. The reported casualties figure remain in dispute, however the incident served to strengthen the freedom movement in the Punjab. It would be regarded as a major catalyst for the independence movement.

20 Pakistan The struggle for independence went the route of civil disobedience or Satyagarah. This movement turned violent. The failed All-Parties conference saw a parting between the Congress Party and the Muslim League. The ideas of Iqbal, for an independent Muslim state, and the name “Pakistan” coined by Rehmat Ali stirred a movement that gained popularity over the next decade. The Government of India Act would be the last constitution of the British Raj. The Act increased provincial autonomy with central power reserved by the British. The Act also expanded voting franchise and created separate electorates. Elections under the Government of India Act did not give any clear majority to either of the two major parties.

Mohamed Ali Jinnah, President of the Muslim League presented the argument of the Two Nation Theory. He stated that the Muslims of India were significantly different from the Hindu majority to the extent that the Muslims of India represented their own separate nation. Historians and scholars will forever debate the merits of these arguments. However Jinnah and the Muslim League could not secure a workable agreement with the Congress Party on forming a government in an independent nation. The partitioning of the sub- continent into two separate countries became the only alternative. Rioting among Hindus and Muslims saw mounting death tolls.

22 Pakistan 1940 LAHORE RESOLUTION
“Resolved that it is the considered view of this Session of the All-India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basis principles, viz., that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute 'Independent States' in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.” - Muslim League Session, March 23, 1940.

On August 14, 1947 the map of the Indian sub-continent was redrawn. The period of colonial rule ended and the region was partitioned into two separate nations. The face of the globe now included a new country called “Pakistan”. Lord Louis Mountbatten was the last British Viceroy to India. He oversaw the transfer of power to the two new countries. Mohamed Ali Jinnah became Pakistan’s first Governor-General.

24 Pakistan DISPUTE Princely states of the former colony were to accede to either of the two new governments. The rulers of these states would choose to which nation they would accede. However these decisions would also take into consideration the sentiments of the state’s people. Freedom fighters from Pakistan crossed into Muslim majority Kashmir to support the uprising that opted for Pakistan. This action forced the ruler of Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh to appeal for security forces from India to counter the uprising. India stated that it could provide forces only if Kashmir joined India. In October 1947 Singh acceded to New Delhi; India’s army occupied Kashmir. Pakistan responded by sending its army into Kashmir. Fighting ensued until the 1949 United Nations’ Cease Fire.

25 Pakistan JINNAH DIES Mohamed Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan, died at the age of 71 in Karachi. Jinnah had been given the title of the “Quaid-e-Azam” or “Great leader” by his people. Without his efforts Pakistan would never have been created. Jinnah was suffering from tuberculosis during his final years, but his health condition was kept a guarded secret. Had the news of his failing health been disclosed, there would be no Pakistan today. The country was barely one year old at the time of Jinnah’s death. His passing left a void in Pakistan’s political landscape and the nation continues to feel this impact.

When Pakistan became an independent nation in 1947, it consisted of two wings, to the east and west of present day India. The northwest regions of pre- partitioned India became West Pakistan and Muslim majority of Bengal became East Pakistan. The huge geographic separation, plus differences in language and regional customs prevented the east and west from fully uniting. Political and economic power was concentrated in the western side while the east had the larger population. This led to further widening the division between the peoples of East and West Pakistan. In 1971 a bloody civil war erupted in the Bengal province. By the end of that year East Pakistan separated to become its own independent nation: Bangladesh.

27 Pakistan Government Falters
In the years following Jinnah’s death Pakistan was under the leadership of its first Prime Minister, Liaqat Ali Khan. Faced with numerous pressures of a fledgling government, Liaqat established the ground work of Pakistan’s foreign policies and met with Prime Minister Nehru of India. He visited the United States, resulting in stronger ties between Pakistan and the West. Liaqat Ali Khan Liaqat Ali Khan established the National Bank of Pakistan and set up a currency mill in Karachi. In October 1951 he was assassinated in Municipal Park, Rawalpindi (later named Liaqat Bagh). With his death the government began to falter.

During the 1950s Pakistan operated an unsteady democracy. By 1960 Field Marshall Ayub Khan established military rule and became the nation’s President. Some prosperity began under Ayub. After the 1965 war with India, the two countries signed an agreement in Taskhent that was not seen favorably by Pakistan’s politicians; Ayub’s popularity declined. In March 1969 he handed charge to General Yahya Khan. Martial Law continued under Yahya until the elections that resulted in a political impasse between the People’s Party and the Awami League. Civil war erupted the following year and with intervention from India, East Pakistan separated. Yahya resigned and Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto became President. Ayub Khan Yahya Khan

Under Ayub Khan, Pakistan’s national capital city was moved from Karachi to the newly constructed city called “Islamabad”. The capital was established in the Potwar Plateau near the ancient city of Rawalpindi.

30 Pakistan 1965 WAR The Raan of Kutch incident in April 1965 saw border skirmishes between India and Pakistan along the southern end of the border in Sindh A cease fire was negotiated by the British. This incident spurred confidence among Pakistani hawks towards “Operation Gibraltar” , an effort to drive Indian occupation forces from Kashmir. This was in August of 1965. Hostilities in Kashmir escalated and resulted in a full-scale war between India and Pakistan in September A U.N. cease fire ended the fighting.

31 Pakistan AFTERMATH OF ’65
In January following the ’65 War, Pakistan and India signed the Tashkent Agreement that returned forces to pre-war positions. This was seen as a statement of weakness by Foreign Minister Zulfiquar A. Bhutto, one of the hawks who had touted the Pakistani Army’s strength prior to the war. He would resign and form the Pakistan Peoples Party. Further, East Pakistani leader Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was angered over the Government’s failure to provide adequate protection to East Pakistan during the war period. Mujib began pushing for greater autonomy in the Bengal province. The 1970 elections saw Mujib’s Awami League claim a majority in the Assembly. Yahya dissolved the cabinet and declared an indefinite postponement. East Pakistan rebelled, demanding separation. The situation deteriorated in Bengal and the Indian Army entered East Pakistan. The third Indo/Pak war in 1971 lead to the dismemberment of the Bengal Province.

Following the 1971 debacle, Pakistan underwent reconstruction under Bhutto and the nation began to see some stability under the democratic government Pakistan finally established a constitution in A year later India conducted a nuclear test, prompting Bhutto to commit Pakistan towards developing its own nuclear program. Many domestic and welfare programs were ignored. Elections in 1977 saw protests over the results and a national crisis loomed. A military coup led by General Zia-ul Haq toppled Bhutto. Pakistan was again under martial law. Bhutto was hanged in 1979. US/Pakistan relations strengthened when the USSR occupied Afghanistan. This period saw a rise in weapons and narcotics trafficking. Zulfiquar A. Bhutto Zia-ul Haq

Under General Zia, Pakistan saw increasing religious intolerance. In 1988 Zia was killed in a plane crash. Elections were held in November of that year. Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfiquar A. Bhutto was elected Prime Minister, becoming the first woman head-of-state of a Muslim nation. Into the 1990s Pakistan saw episodes of democratic governments removed constitutionally under charges of corruption. Benazir was removed in 1991, and Nawaz Sharif was elected Prime Minister. Sharif was removed in 1993 and Benazir was elected again. The second Benazir government was removed in 1996 and Sharif was re-elected in 1997. Benazir Bhutto Nawaz Sharif

In May of 1998 India conducted another series of nuclear tests. Faced with pressure to respond, the Sharif government hoped to gain US support for a high-level summit meeting on the unresolved Kashmir Dispute. Unable to gain the commitment for such a summit from the United States, Pakistan successfully conducted its own nuclear tests later in May, International sanctions were levied on both India and Pakistan. The world held its breath a year later when a brief war erupted between the two countries near Kargil in Kashmir; nuclear exchange was feared if the hostilities escalated. At the urging of the US, Pakistan withdrew its forces to peace time positions. Nawaz Sharif faced heavy domestic criticism for this action.

In addition to the withdrawal from Kargil, Sharif faced further criticism for marginalizing various national institutions. When he attempted to overpower the military, a rift developed between him and the Army Chiefs, who were annoyed over Kargil. In October a bloodless coup by General Pervez Musharraf ousted Sharif and would send him into exile. Musharraf installed himself as Chief Executive and then President. US/Pakistan relations had declined during the 1990s but were strengthened in 2001 following the 9/11 terror attacks on America. Elections were held in October Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali was elected Prime Minister. Pervez Musharraf M. Zafarullah Khan Jamali

36 Pakistan 2004 Elections Amid speculation and counter reports of fully reposed confidence, Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned in June 2004 to allow his party to select a new Prime Minister. Chaudhry Shujat Hussain served as interim Prime Minister until elections were held. On August 27, 2004 Shaukat Aziz was elected Prime Minister in a mid-term election. Aziz, a former CitiBank executive in New York, had been named Finance Minister following the 1999 coup and was also seen as President Musharraf’s choice for Prime Minister. The election was criticized by opposition as having been rigged. Shaukat Aziz

37 Pakistan Confidence Building Measures
On April 7, 2005 bus service was established between Muzzafarabad (in Pakistan-held Kashmir) and Srinagar (Indian-held Kashmir). The historic “Peace Caravan” marked the first time in nearly 60 years since Kashmiris from opposite sides of the Line-of-Control could easily travel this route. The bus service faced potential attacks from militants seeking to de-rail the peace efforts.

38 Pakistan Disaster in the North
In October 2005 a magnitude earthquake centered some 56 miles from Islamabad devastated the Northern Regions, and parts of Kashmir. To assist relief efforts, Pakistan and India agreed to open the Line-of-Control.

39 Pakistan 2007 Unrest in the Capital
President Musharraf removed Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry on March 9th; a move that drew heavy criticism across the country and in the international community. In July the Supreme Court reversed the decision and reinstated Chaudhry. In Islamabad the Red Mosque or Lal Masjid was overrun by extremists challenging the writ of the Government. A tense standoff ensued ending in a bloody gun battle where the Red Mosque was finally secured by Pakistani rangers. Some 50 militants and 8 soldiers were killed in the exchange.

40 Pakistan 2007 Political Turmoil
In October Musharraf was re-elected to a second term as President, but faced severe criticism as he continued to served as Chief of Army Staff. Benazir Bhutto ended 8 years of self-exile and returned to Pakistan expecting to form ties with Musharraf. In November Musharraf declared a state of emergency, dissolved the National Assembly and removed all Federal judges. Protests erupted across the nation and in many parts of the world. Protesting lawyers were arrested. Mohammed Mian Soomro was named interim Prime Minister. Nawaz Sharif returned from exile pledging to serve the masses. On November 28 Musharraf resigned from the Army, Ashfaq P. Kiyani became the new COAS. Musharraf took oath as a civilian president.

41 Benazir Bhutto Assassinated
Pakistan Benazir Bhutto Assassinated On December 27, 2007 former Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto was killed in Rawalpindi by a suicide bomber. Some 22 others were killed in the attack. Bhutto was exiting Liaqat Bagh following a political rally. The attack came several weeks after President Musharraf had lifted the state of emergency. The election scheduled for January 8, 2008 was postponed for six weeks.

42 Pakistan February 2008 Elections
Elections held on February 18th saw the PPP and PML-N win 88 and 66 seats respectively in the National Assembly. The PML-Q, which favored President Musharraf, won only 38 seats. Asif Zardari (widower of Benazir Bhutto) and Nawaz Sharif pledge to form a coalition government. In March, Dr. Fehmida Mirza was elected the country’s first woman to serve as Speaker of the National Assembly. Yusuf Raza Gilani was elected Prime Minister.

43 Pakistan Musharraf Resigns
Facing impeachment charges President Musharraf resigned on August 17, 2008. Musharraf was under growing pressure from his political opponents and became isolated at home and abroad. Within one week the coalition government of Zardari/Nawaz Sharif fell apart after disagreements over restoring the deposed judges. In September 2008 Asif Zardari was elected President by the Assembly.

44 Chief Justice Restored
Pakistan Chief Justice Restored In March 2009 Opposition leader Nawaz Sharif launched the “Long March” from Lahore to Islamabad demanding the restoration of Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry. A year earlier President Zardari had pledge to restore the Chief Justice within 30 days of assuming the Presidency. He later reneged on this pledge. The “Long March” was called off when the Government agreed to the restoration of Justice Chaudhdry. The move was praised worldwide.

The rich history and culture of the Sub- Continent and Pakistan is one of triumph, conquest and also achievements. In this mix there are stories of struggle, clash and diversity. The country today has failed to achieve a successful democracy and has conflicts on the exact identity of its nature.

46 Pakistan Some Pakistanis emphasize the Islamic qualities of the state, others point to a more moderate and tolerant society based on Islamic principles. Pakistan's military has been its most stable institution, while lack of good civilian governance weakened the state, leaving it floundering from where many had once hoped Pakistan would progress.

47 Pakistan Legacy As a nation Pakistan has struggled since its creation in Conflicting viewpoints have challenged the very nature of the state. Many are reminded of Jinnah’s words to the Constituent Assembly in 1947: “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the State.”

48 This slide presentation was prepared
by Parwez Wahid

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