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CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST By Madeleine Stout, Nick Mihaich, Barnett Klane, Taylor Reiter, and Tom Case.

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Presentation on theme: "CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST By Madeleine Stout, Nick Mihaich, Barnett Klane, Taylor Reiter, and Tom Case."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST By Madeleine Stout, Nick Mihaich, Barnett Klane, Taylor Reiter, and Tom Case

2 2 Palestine and the British Mandate By Madeleine Stout Slides: 3 - 13

3 Madeleine Stout3 Ottomans Control of Palestine The Ottoman Turks defeated the Mamluks, a group of Mongol invaders that had recklessly ruled Palestine since 1260, in 1517. Ottoman Empire in 16th Century

4 Madeleine Stout4 Ottoman Rule Under the Ottomans, Palestine was divided into districts called Sanjaks. The Palestinian Arabs were given much responsibility for the administration of the districts. Sanjaks of Palestine

5 Madeleine Stout5 Christians and Jews Called “People of the Book” by Muslims, Christians and Jews had religious freedom because they believed in God, revelation and the day-of-judgment. They had to pay special taxes along with the property tax everyone had to pay because they were non- Muslims.

6 Madeleine Stout6 Arab Nationalism European influences caused change in education and lifestyle, triggering the birth of Arab nationalism. Improvements in communication and education increased the knowledge of the people and their backgrounds. Because Jewish settlers kept taking the land of Arab peasants, Palestinians objected to the Jewish immigration to Palestine. Education of Palestinian Children

7 Madeleine Stout7 Jewish National Home The Jewish Nationalist movement called Zionism was created in the 19th century to unite the Jewish people of exile and settle them in Palestine. Palestine is the ancient homeland of the Jews, and the Zionists hoped that it would eventually become the Jewish National home. Map of Holy Land, the Ancient Homeland of the Jews

8 Madeleine Stout8 World War I The Ottomans arrested Arab nationalists and Zionist leaders, ceasing the Arab protest. Palestine was used as a base for the Ottoman army, so food was in short supply and resources went to the army. Thousands of Arab peasants were conscripted to serve in the military. Ottoman Army in World War I

9 Madeleine Stout9 Balfour Declaration In a letter to Lord Rothschild, the leader of the Zionist movement in Britain, Lord Balfour, the British foreign secretary, states that the British government will support the aim for a national home for the Jews in Palestine without prejudicing right of the non-Jewish communities living in Palestine.

10 Madeleine Stout10 British Promises to Palestinians The Ottomans sided with Germany during World War I, so Britain encouraged the Arabs to revolt and fight alongside Britain. The British promised certain concessions, specifically support of Arab independence, in exchange for their support and allegiance during the war.

11 Madeleine Stout11 British Control of Palestine British troops invaded Palestine in December of 1917, and, with Arab and Palestinian military support, conquered Palestine. At the San Remo Conference in 1920, Palestine officially became a mandate of Great Britain.

12 Madeleine Stout12 Jewish Immigration Limited Palestine had a small Jewish community in the 19th century, but through five distinct periods of immigration, the Jewish population increased dramatically. Because of Palestinian revolts and protests of the Jewish immigration, Britain limited Jewish immigration and restricted their acquirement of land to limited areas in 1939. Jewish Immigration to Palestine

13 Madeleine Stout13 Increased Tension The increased Jewish immigration and British support of Zionism increasingly outraged the Arabs as they constantly protested and attacked both Jewish immigrants and British officials. The Arab leadership groups were terminated by the British after many years of fighting for the land they occupied.

14 14 The Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949 By Nick Mihaich Slides 15 – 24

15 Nick Mihaich15 The UN Partition Violence in Palestine began in 1947, when the United Nations issued a Partition to split Palestine between the Arab and the Jewish. Jamal Husseini, the Arab Higher Committee Spokesman organized riots against the partition, which started in November. By the 2 nd Week, 93 Arabs were dead, 84 Jews, and 7 Englishmen. By the end of January, 1427 Arabs killed, 381 Jews, and 46 British were dead.

16 Nick Mihaich16 First Signs of War January 9, 1948. 1,000 Arab militiamen attack Jewish communities in Northern Palestine. The Jewish defenders were outnumbered and forced to hand over weapons and bases to the Arab Legion. Countries in the Arab legion are Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Arabs take the offensive from November 29, 1947 to April 1 1948.

17 Nick Mihaich17 The Road to Independence On April 26, 1948, Transjordan’s ruler, King Abdullah claimed that a “peaceful resolution to the Palestine problem has failed; I will have the pleasure and honor of saving Palestine.” May 4, 1948, Arab legion attacks Kfar Etzion, Defenders surrender but are massacred in the aftermath. This was prior to Israel’s declaration of independence. This Arab tank was used to weaken Jewish defenses during the Arab attacks.

18 Nick Mihaich18 Arabs to Blame The UN blamed Arabs for the outbreak of violence in Palestine. Set up restricting laws against Arab and Israeli forces. The Haganah, Jewish military underground division, captured major towns such as Tiberias and Haifa. On May 14, the Jewish state of Israel was constructed in Palestine.

19 Nick Mihaich19 Arabs Invade!  Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon and Iraq all invade Israel immediately after its construction. In response, other superpowers quickly recognized Israel and charged the Arab countries with disrupting the peace. A ceasefire is set up on June 11, 1948, by the United Nations. This is a picture of Jewish soldiers during the war of independence in 1948.

20 Nick Mihaich20 Bernadotte Plan During the summer of 1948, The United Nations make an attempt to form a peace treaty between Arab nations and Israel through what is known as the Bernadotte Plan. Count Folke Bernadotte was sent to Palestine, to resolve the conflict between Jews and Arabs through negotiation. Both sides rejected the treaty. Meanwhile, the Jewish military began having more success at repelling the Arab invaders

21 Nick Mihaich21 No Support  Despite the lack of aid from the west, the Jewish began to gain a foothold in their War of Independence. Due to fears of either side using weapons of US origin, the United States issued a arms embargo on the area, meaning weapons and war materials were not allowed to be sent to Palestine by US shipping companies.

22 Nick Mihaich22 2nd Offensive The Arabs were aided by the British, getting weapons and training under British generals. The Jews had to smuggle weapons and war supplies out of nearby countries such as Czechoslovakia. On the eve of war, the Jewish chief of operations, Yigael Yaldin, stated that the best probability in the fight was a 50/50 chance. A small company of Jewish soldiers during 1948-1949.

23 Nick Mihaich23 Aftermath In the End, the Arabs lost their war against the Jewish people. Losing more territory than the amount of land granted to them by the Partition. The cost to the Jews was staggering as well. 6,373 Jewish people were killed, nearly 1% of the Israeli population of 650,000.

24 Nick Mihaich24 Resolutions  The Arab countries all agreed to sign armistices with Israel, except Iraq. Iraq chose to withdraw its troops and hand over its sector of land to Jordan. The dates of the signed armistices were Egypt on Feb 24, Lebanon on March 23, Jordan on April 3, and Syria on July 20.

25 25 The Six-Day War and The 1973 War By Barnett Klane Slides 26 - 37

26 Barnett Klane26 Introduction Israel is a country in the Middle East that was created after WWII for a homeland for the Jewish people. Since its creation it has been under constant fighting. I will explain two of these wars, the Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War This is a picture of dead bodies from the Holocaust

27 Barnett Klane27 The Fronts of the Six Day War There were three fronts of the war which each lasted a different amount of time in the Six Day war which ended after 132 hours and 30 minutes of conflict The Syrians front: 6 days The Egyptian front: 4 days The Jordanian front: 3 days

28 Barnett Klane28 The Navy Israel was fighting the war on land, sea, and in the air Here is a table of the battle against Egypt in the Sea Type of Ship IsraelEgypt Destroyer37 Submarine312 Missile- Carriers -18 Anti- Submarine Crafts 112 MIBS832 This is a picture of an Israeli Battleship

29 Barnett Klane29 The War The war was fought from Monday June 5, 1967 till Saturday June 10, 1967. The countries of Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria gave aid to Egypt, Syria, and Jordan who were fighting against Israel The War ended with a UN Call of Ceasefire This made Israel Victorious

30 Barnett Klane30 The Cost of War During the War Israel pushed the invaders back and gained land such as: Sinai and the Gaza Strip from Egypt Golan Heights from Syria The West Bank from Jordan This caused stress in the Arab nations and forced the Arabs to accepted the ceasefire

31 Barnett Klane31

32 Barnett Klane32 Losses Occur on Both Sides As in any war there are always losses on both sides this war, during this war: Also The Suez Canal had to close for 8 years

33 Barnett Klane33 The Threat of a Second War Anwar Sabet who is the Egyptian President threatened to attack Israel again if Israel accepted Resolution 242 Resolution 242 states that Israel must return all the lands they gained in the Six Day War. Israel did not return the lands

34 Barnett Klane34 The Yom Kippur War On October 6,1973 Egyptian and Syrian solders lead a surprise attack in Israel At Golan Heights 180 Israeli tanks faced 1,400 Syrian tanks. At the Suez Canal 436 Israeli Defenders faced 80,000 Egyptians Iraq sent 18,00 men and hundreds of tanks to help with the surprise attack too.

35 Barnett Klane35 During the War Egypt refused a ceasefire and a Soviet Airlift to the states fighting Israel Israel got an airlift from the US to help it recover from the surprise attacks

36 Barnett Klane36 Israelis win in the End The war lasted 2 weeks was extremely costly on both sides. Israeli losses included: 115 aircrafts 800 tanks 2,523 people Arab losses included: 2,000 tanks 450 aircrafts The war was won by the Israelis This is a Picture from the Yom Kippur War

37 Barnett Klane37 Conclusion During Both the Six day war, and the Yom Kippur War, many lives were sacrificed and lots of money spent. But still to this day Israel is fighting with Egypt, Syria, and Jordan over the lands Israel Conquered in the Six day war

38 38 Camp David Accords By Taylor Reiter Slides 39 - 50

39 Taylor Reiter39 Background of Middle East In the thirty years before the accords, the Arab States and Israel had fought in four wars. The wars ranged from 1948- 1973, costing both sides much of their economy, land, and goods. Israel had control of Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, and the land up to the Suez Canal. Map of the land seized

40 Taylor Reiter40 United Nations The United Nations Security Council created the Resolution 242. This resolution was an invite to many Middle Eastern states like Israel, Jordan, and the Arab Republic to discuss the need of peace. The Middle East was in need of security and peace.

41 Taylor Reiter41 Start of Peace President Carter of the United States and his Peace Initiatives worked hard to try and bring peace to the Middle East. He was the first to get the Egyptian president and the Prime Minister of Israel to meet civilly. President Carter

42 Taylor Reiter42 Sadat Seeking Peace President Sadat seeks peace as the president of Egypt which is the largest Arab state. This is because the three division of the Israeli army had circled the Egyptian forces that were trying to take back the Suez Canal. The United Nations then made an agreement with Egypt that they will stop all fire from the Israelis if they agree to the resolution 338.

43 Taylor Reiter43 United States Peace Initiatives President Carter invites President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to Camp David so that the two leaders could sit down and discuss their situation with ration. This was a huge step because before there was only hate between the states.

44 Taylor Reiter44 United States Peace Initiatives President Carter took a relaxed method to get the leaders to talk. He would take each one personally on a long walk and listen to their ideas and problems. By the end of the week he was able to get both Begin and Sadat to talk with peace and eventually agree to create the “framework for peace”.

45 Taylor Reiter45 President Sadat Sadat wanted Israel to leave the territories that they occupied on his land, work to establish national entity, and compensation for the destruction that Israel caused during their occupation. President Sadat

46 Taylor Reiter46 Prime Minister Begin He found everything Sadat wanted as an outrageous suggestion. The United States tried to work with the two leaders and offered to build Israel new airfields so that it wouldn’t be as big of a loss to give the pre existing along with the Rafah settlements. Begin

47 Taylor Reiter47 Accords The Framework of Peace was mostly in favor of Israel. In the agreement Israel had to evacuate all its troops from the Sinai Peninsula with in three years of the signing of the agreement. Egypt was then forced to give Israel all rights to travel through the Suez Canal and the Straight of Tiran. The two then had to agree to help Palestinian government in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip create a self government.

48 Taylor Reiter48 Peace Treaty The accords at Camp David led to the peace treaty of Israel and Egypt. Within three months of the accord the two states were able to create more agreements and discussions that led to their ability to create a lasting peace. Signing of the treaty

49 Taylor Reiter49 Impact The citizens of Israel found this as a dream come true, a place where they could live in peace but Egyptians did not. President Sadat caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab League. Egypt now had control of the Sinai and lost their military leverage on Israel.

50 Taylor Reiter50 Impact President Sadat was assonated in 1981, as a suspected result of his work. The two leader’s collaboration of efforts was rewarded with the honor of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978. Nobel peace prize

51 51 Intifada and Peace Process By Thomas Case Slides 52 - 61

52 Tom Case52 The Intifada  The word Intifada is an Arabic word which means to cause an uprising.

53 Tom Case53 Palestinian Liberation Organization  The Palestinian Liberation Organization was an organization whose purpose was to push for an individual Palestinian state.  The PLO was established in the year 1964.

54 Tom Case54 Actions of the PLO  The PLO was a group known for engaging in terrorist activities to force Israel and the world to address the problems of the Palestinians.  This organization would use terrorist attacks to intimidate Israel into giving the Palestinians their own state.

55 Tom Case55 Yasser Arafat  Yasser Arafat was born on August 24, 1929 in Cairo, Egypt.  Arafat founded an organization known as FATAH whose sole purpose was to achieve an independent state for Palestinians.  FATAH used terrorist attacks to achieve their goals.

56 Tom Case56 The Revolts The Palestinians often used terrorist attacks such as bombings and molotov cocktails. These revolts were aimed at the Israeli civilians to pressure the Israeli government into providing the Palestinians with their own state.

57 Tom Case57 The Struggle The PLO’s acts of terrorism has been successful in some respects. The Israeli government is now in a political war with the Palestinians. The struggle between the Palestinians and the Israelis soon got the United States involved because of the way it had been impacting the world.

58 Tom Case58 The Peace Process The Peace Process was an idea of peace between the Israeli’s and the Palestinians. The Intifada had made this idea of peace possible. The United States had brought Palestine and Israel together for a meeting to try and bring them to peace on October 30, 1991. There had been 10 rounds of this and the Palestinians and the Israeli’s did not achieve anything through this.

59 Tom Case59 The Events of the Intifada The events of the intifada consisted of numerous revolts, and numerous attempts at peace. A major event of the intifada was the United States’ involvement with the Arab-Israeli conflict.

60 Tom Case60 The Oslo Declaration The Oslo Declaration of Principles was a document that was an attempt to try and bring peace between the Palestinians and the Israeli’s This document was the main starting event for the Peace Process.

61 Tom Case61 The Peace Process The Peace Process guidelines consisted of ways to try and bring peace between the Palestinians and the Israelis. It did not end the conflict as it continues to this day.

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