2European CompetitionAll four leading powers are in a struggle for controlEngland, France, Spain, and the NetherlandsGreatest rival for the English in North America was the French.France controlled a vast majority of the interior territory from the St. Lawrence River to the Gulf of Mexico.
4British and French Conflicts Between 1689 and 1748, there was a series of wars fought between the British and the French.Most of the fighting took place in Europe but each war ended with a treaty that did not really change anything.Eventually, war reached North America and the colonists were drawn into war.
5Native American Influence The British knew that in order to drive the French out of North America, they had to get rid of French advantages.Relationship with the Native AmericansNative Americans, who inhabited the regions between the two competing powers received many generous gifts from both powers.Weapons, ammunition
6Canasatego, Iroquois Leader July 7, 1742 “We know our Lands are now become more valuable. The white People think we do not know their value; but we are sensible [aware] that the Land is everlasting, and the few Goods we receive for it are soon worn out that gone…Besides, we are not well used [treated] with respect to the lands still unsold by us. Your people daily settle on these lands, and spoil our hunting…your horses and cows have eaten the grass our deer used to feed on.”
7Native American Influence Native Americans wanted to continue to receive gifts from both powersRequired a balance of power between the twoBalance between France and Britain began to shift as the British population in the colonies grew.French colonists were greatly outnumbered by the British colonists by 1754British began treating the Native Americans very harshly and began taking even more land.
8Native American Influence The French showed more restraintTreated Natives with respect and generosity in comparison to how they were treated by the BritishFrench helped hold off British colonial expansionEstablished forts along territorial boundariesManned and protected by the Native Americans
9Ohio River Valley A point of conflict between Britain and France Both powers claimed the area, but it was largely unsettledFort Duquesne built by the French to discourage British settlement.Angered the British, especially Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia.Sent troops to remove the French from the fort in 1754, led by George Washington.
11Washington’s AttackWashington’s attack on a small French force was successfulFrench counterattack forced Washington to surrender.Defeat sparked the French and Indian War, known as the Seven Years War in Europe.
12French & Indian War- Initial Battles Britain initially did poorly in the warBritain was able to evict French troops from an area near Nova ScotiaBritain encountered defeat when troops marched into a French and Indian ambush near Fort Duquesne.French destroyed British forts, Indians raided British settlements.British cut off French shipping to the Americas, which caused some Natives to change sides for the better supplied British.
13End to War British gained control of French forts and Montreal. Forced French governor general to surrender the rest of CanadaAccomplished their major goalTreaty of Paris (1763)- ended the war between France and Britain.Canada, Ohio River Valley, Great Lakes Region, and Florida were given to BritishMississippi River marked boundary between British and Spanish in North America
15Native American Reactions Surrender of Canada to the British was bad news for the Indians of the interior.Indians could not play the French and British off of one another anymore.
16British Reactions Cut off supply of goods to the Indians Settlers flooded into Indian areas and took the land.Many Indian tribes were affected
17Pontiac’s RebellionNative Americans attacked and captured many British fortsNative Americans raided British settlementsUprising called Pontiac’s RebellionGoals:Weaken BritishBring French back into North AmericaNatives failed to gain control of the three largest British ports: Detroit, Niagara, and Fort Pitt, formally known as Fort Duquesne.
18End of the RebellionBecause supply lines were cut, Indians were unable to resupply ammunition and gun powder.Caused an end to the rebellionNew British commander, Thomas Cage, interested in respecting NativesNatives and the British made peaceBritish restraint, Proclamation of 1763
19Proclamation of 1763Called for colonial settlers to remain east of the Appalachian Mountains“And whereas it is just and reasonable, and essential to our Interest, and to the Security of our Colonies,…the several Nations or Tribes of Indians with whom We are connected, and who live under our Protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the Possession of such Parts of our Dominions and Territories as…are reserved to them, or any of them, as their Hunting Grounds.”
20Effects of the Proclamation of 1763 Troops were outnumbered by colonists, so they were not really able to limit expansionDestroyed cabins built by colonists, colonists rebuilt themColonists were irritated by Britain’s attempt to control their expansion and settlement
21War Aftermath Tensions between Britain and the colonies increased Britain wanted more control of the coloniesBritain wanted help paying war debtsAlbany Plan of Union: drafted by Benjamin Franklin, plan called for colonies to unite under British rule and cooperate with one anotherCreated American continental assemblyPlan failedBritain imposed new taxes and regulations on the coloniesAngered colonists