2IntroductionBritain at height of power in 1763, yet Declaration of Independence in 1776.How and why does this happen so quickly?Why are colonies and Britain unable to get along?Importance of eventsbut also mentality/ideology
3Americans?Virginia and New England were on 6th/7th generation of Americansleft to seek new life, new start, one unavailable in GBSignificant proportion not ethnically BritishLife of average American very different from life of average Englishman.
5War and aftermath brings problems Huge national debt for Britain Problems in 1763War and aftermath brings problemsHuge national debt for Britain£75m to £150mVast territory to policeRemoval of French threatno longer a common enemy to fight
8Grenville told the colonial representatives for ideas to help raise money All complained but no new ideasSugar Act did not affect general populationBut in the same speech Grenville also said“it may be proper to charge certain Stamp Duties in the said Colonies and Plantations”
9Stamp ActsOriginated in Holland in the 17th CFirst introduced in England in 1694An act for granting to Their Majesties several duties on Vellum, Parchment and Paper for 10 years, towards carrying on the war against France.
10Variable charge on number of different legal documents insurance policiesdocuments used as evidence in courtsgrants of probateRaised around £50,000 a yearAdjusted and expanded over the years
11August 1, 1712first stamp tax on British newspapers appeared
12quickly passes through Parliament February 6, 1765 Grenville brings Stamp Act before parliament for the 1st of three readingsquickly passes through ParliamentBenjamin Franklin attempted to get a friend a position as stamp agentThere were a few people who attempted to prevent the ActBut most supported people like M.P. Charles Townshend who made the following statement
13“And now will Americans, Children planted by our Care, nourished up by our Indulgence until they are grown to a Degree of Strength and Opulence, and Protected by our Arms, with they grudge to contribute their mite to relieve us from the heavy burden of that weight which we lie under?”The Act received approval on March 22, 1765Charles Townshend
14Stamp ActDuties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12
15“might as well as hindered the setting sun” “since ‘tis down Let us make as good night as we can”Benjamin FranklinNo Taxation without Representation“Virtual representation”Charleston SCManchester
16News of the Stamp Act reached the colonies during the first two weeks of April 1765 Initially no one was exactly sure how to respondThen May 31 Virginia House of Burgess approve set of resolves proposed by Patrick Henry
17Henry, lawyer of 25, new to the house elected only ten days earlierHad been involved in several high profile court casesAlso chosen his timing with intentThe House of Burgess only needed 25 members present to constitute a quorumIt was the end of the session and only 39 out of 116 members were left in town
19Summary Henry initially had seven resolves First four accepted Fifth, a radical statement, passed after much debate and was rescinded the next dayAnd the following two were never presented or debated
20Newspaper reports made events in Virginia sound more and more extravagant Through newspapers, private letters, and word of mouth news of events in Virginia spread and inspired, or incited, actions elsewhereEnd of 1765 lower houses in 8 other colonies passed resolutionsBy early 1766 politics in America had been transformed
21Where Violence began and politics was transformed Boston
22Two protests in Boston August 1765 exposed divisions continued to characterize subsequent colonial protestsMembers of educated elite preferred orderly demonstrations confined to political issuesThe city’s laborers, by contrast, focused on economic grievances
23Anti-Stamp Act protests from Salem, MA to Savannah, GA. So successful that by November 1when law was scheduled to take effectnot one stamp distributor was willing to carry out his official dutiesOn the other hand, wealthy men recognized that mobs composed of the formerly powerlessPosed a threat to their own dominance of the society
24Elite attempted to channel resistance Created an inter-colonial association, the Sons of LibertyName came from speech by British soldierFirst group New York, fall of 1765By early 1766 linked protest leaders from Charleston, SC to Portsmouth, NH
25Fall and winter of 1765-66, opposition proceeded on three separate fronts. 1) PoliticalColonial legislatures petitioned Parliament to repeal hated lawIn October sent delegates to an inter-colonial CongressThe Stamp Act Congress met in New YorkDrafted a unified but conservative statement of protest and sent petitions to the King and Parliament
26Declaration of Rights and Grievances In addition to the specifics of the Stamp Act taxes, the declaration asserted thatOnly the colonial assemblies had a right to tax the colonies.Trial by jury was a right, and the use of Admiralty Courts was abusive.Colonists possessed all the rights of Englishmen.Without voting rights, Parliaments could not represent the colonists.
27Important inclusive tactic 2) Popular protestSons of Liberty held mass meetings, attempting to rally public support for the resistance movement 3) BusinessAmerican merchants organized non-importation associations to pressure British exportersImportant inclusive tactic
281760s approx. ¼ of all British exports sent to the colonies American merchants reasoned London merchants whose sales suffered would lobby for repealalso help to reduce their bloated inventoriesMarch 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.Non-importation appeared to have worked
29Boycotts and crowd actions less important than it appeared 1765 George III, for reasons unrelated to colonial politics, replaced GreenvilleLord Rockingham, new PM, had opposed the Stamp ActHe thought the law unwise and divisive.
30Rockingham proposed repeal But he linked it to passage of the Declaratory ActAsserted Parliament’s ability to tax and legislate for Britain’s American possessions “in all cases whatsoever.”The colonists had accomplished their immediate aim, repeal of the ActsBut the long-term prospects were unclear
31Summer of 1766, another change in the ministry in London brought Townsend to power His actions revealed how fragile the colonists victory had been.Townsend proposed new taxes in 1767Tax was now to be levied on goods likePaperGlassTea
331. Professor Edward Countryman states in the video that he thinks Thomas Jefferson's vision of equality at the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence meanthe American people were equal to other people.the west was equal to the east.women were equal to men.2. Professor James Oliver Horton believes that Thomas Jefferson's position on slavery illustratesthe hypocrisy of the entire Declaration of Independence.the American conflict in trying to live up to principles.that Virginia would soon abolish slavery.
34Boston complaints continue… Repeated clashesOrigins of Boston Massacrecustoms commissioners frequent targets of mob action
35June 1768Seizure of Liberty on suspicion of smugglingOwned by John Hancock
36Caused a riotHelped convince London that troops were needed to maintain orderAssignment of two regiments of regularsReminder of the oppressive potential of British power
37Bostonians found themselves hemmed in Parents fear for the safety of their daughtersMilitary parades were held on Boston Common
38Greatest potential for violence relationship with Boston laborers. Redcoats sought employment in their off-duty hoursMembers of the two groups brawled repeatedly in taverns and on the streets
39Evening of March 5, 1770crowd of laborers began throwing hard-packed snowball at a soldier guarding the Commons HouseHearing noise reinforcements arrivedFour killed and eight wounded, one of whom died a few days later.
40Resistance leaders idealized the dead rioters as martyrs for the cause of liberty A funeral was heldMarch 5th observed annually with patriotic orations.Paul Revere’s engraving of the massacre was part of a propaganda campaign.Revere wasted no time in capitalizing on the MassacreHe issued the print three weeks after the incident
41How Britain Lost America Rebels and RedcoatsHow Britain Lost America
46The Coercive Acts Ordered Boston should pay for the damaged tea Removed Massachusetts upper houseAssembly appointed by the crownGovernor gained control ofsheriffs and Judgeslimited the number of town meetingsAny body who committed murder while enforcing the Acts would be tried in England not the coloniesThe quartering act was also beefed upKnown in America as the Intolerable Acts.
471774 first continental congress Colonists push boycott of goods and a ban on exportsAfter much debate the congress sent a letter directly to the King (George III)affirmed parliaments right to regulate commerceClaimed attempts to impose taxes, enforce laws were unconstitutional
48use military might to enforce control in America British responseuse military might to enforce control in Americaparticularly the Boston Arealeads to the British attempt to seize militia arms at Concord, which led to the skirmish at Lexington and the British retreat to Boston under heavy fire.
493 weeks later Second continental congress Olive Branch PetitionRepeal Acts and establish negotiations to guarantee American rightsAt the same time they voted to establish a continental army
50Bunker HillJune 17th British succeeded in dislodging militia troops on Breed’s and Bunker HillOf the 2200 men who attacked1154 died.
51Still desire to remain within the British empire – in a new form Final link to Britain, the respect for the King, ended with work of a failed EnglishmanThomas Pain(e)
52Common Sense.Approximately one in every five adult male owned a copy.Not simply a few dishonest troublesome officials who were the problemBut whole institution of monarchy which was at fault.
53Increasing political differences Military conflictsIdeas in Common SenseLed to the creation of the United States at the second Continental Congress and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
54Jefferson’s rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, with corrections by Benjamin Franklin and John AdamsPrinted final version of the Declaration of Independence
551. Professor Edward Countryman states in the video that he thinks Thomas Jefferson's vision of equality at the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence meanthe American people were equal to other people.the west was equal to the east.women were equal to men.2. Professor James Oliver Horton believes that Thomas Jefferson's position on slavery illustratesthe hypocrisy of the entire Declaration of Independence.the American conflict in trying to live up to principles.that Virginia would soon abolish slavery.