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Between 1933 and 1945, the German government led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party carried out the systematic persecution and murder of Europe’s Jews.

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Presentation on theme: "Between 1933 and 1945, the German government led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party carried out the systematic persecution and murder of Europe’s Jews."— Presentation transcript:

1 Between 1933 and 1945, the German government led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party carried out the systematic persecution and murder of Europe’s Jews. This genocide is now known as the Holocaust.

2 The Nazi regime also persecuted and killed millions of other people it considered politically, racially, or socially unfit.

3 The Allies’ victory ended World War II, but Nazi Germany and its collaborators had left millions dead and countless lives shattered.

4 “First to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them…” -Martin Luther (1543)

5 ANTISEMITISM Jews have faced prejudice and discrimination for over 2,000 years Jews were scapegoats for many problems – Ex: Jews blamed for the “Black Death” that killed thousands during the Middle Ages

6 PRE-WAR JEWISH LIFE Jews were living in every country in Europe before the Nazis came into power – Approximately 9 million Jews in Europe – Poland & Soviet Union had the largest populations Held all types of jobs: farmers, factory workers, business people, doctors, teachers, craftsmen

7 Communists, Socialists, and other political opponents of the Nazis were among the first to be rounded up and imprisoned. THE TERROR BEGINS

8 PERSECUTION The Nazi plan for dealing with the “Jewish Question” evolved in three steps: 1)Expulsion: Get them out of Germany 2)Containment: Put them all together in one place – namely ghettos 3)Final Solution: Annihilation

9 Individuals with pure “German blood” (left column), “Mixed blood” (second and third columns), and Jews (right two columns), as defined in the Nuremberg Laws. NAZI RACE LAWS

10 Laws issued in September 1935 restricted future German citizenship to those of “German or kindred blood,” and excluded those deemed to be “racially” Jewish or Roma (Gypsy). NAZI RACE LAWS

11 The Nazi ideal was the Nordic type, displaying blond hair, blue eyes, and tall stature. THE “SCIENCE” OF RACE

12 PERSECUTION Nazis targeted other individuals and groups in addition to the Jews: 1)Gypsies 2)Homosexual men 3)Jehovah’s Witnesses 4)Handicapped Germans 5)Poles 6)Political opponents

13 1933: A woman reads a boycott sign posted on the window of a Jewish-owned department store. FROM CITIZENS TO OUTCASTS

14 November 9–10, 1938: the Nazi regime unleashed orchestrated anti-Jewish violence across greater Germany. Residents of Rostock, Germany, view a burning synagogue the morning after Kristallnacht. “NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS”

15 Synagogues were vandalized and burned 7,500 Jewish businesses were damaged or destroyed 96 Jews were killed Nearly 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps “NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS”

16 Following the Anschluss, many Austrian Jews attempted to leave Austria. Jews in Vienna wait in line at a police station to obtain exit visas. SEARCH FOR REFUGE

17 Before being allowed to leave, Jews were required to get an exit visa, plus pay large sums of money in taxes and additional fees. SEARCH FOR REFUGE

18 Ghettos were city districts, often enclosed, where the Jewish population was forced to live to control and segregate it from the non-Jewish population. LIFE IN THE GHETTO

19 Survival was a daily challenge as inhabitants struggled for the bare necessities of food, sanitation, shelter, and clothing. LIFE IN THE GHETTO

20 Most countries, including the United States, were unwilling to let Jews immigrate to their country during the 1930s. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES

21 May 1939: the passenger ship St. Louis—seen here before departing Hamburg—sailed from Germany to Cuba carrying 937 passengers, most of them Jews. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES

22 Unknown to the passengers, the Cuban government had revoked their landing certificates. INTRNATIONAL RESPONSES

23 After the U.S. government denied permission for the passengers to enter the United States, the St. Louis returned to Europe. 250 of the refugees would later be killed in the Holocaust. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES

24 FINAL SOLUTION January 20, 1942: 15 high-ranking Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference to determine how the “Jewish Question” would be solved.

25 Between 1942 and 1944, trains carrying Jews from German- controlled Europe rolled into one of the six killing centers located along rail lines in occupied Poland. DEPORTATIONS

26 Commonly between 80 and 100 people were crammed into railcars of this type. Deportation trains usually carried 1,000 to 2,000 people. DEPORTATIONS

27 Many died during the extreme conditions of the journey, and most survivors were murdered upon arrival at the killing centers. DEPORTATIONS

28 The overwhelming majority of Jews who entered the Nazi killing centers were murdered in gas chambers—usually within hours of arrival—and their bodies cremated. CONCENTRATION CAMP UNIVERSE

29 Within the concentration camp system, colored, tri- angular badges identified various prisoner categories. “ENEMIES OF THE STATE”

30 The German authorities confiscated all the personal belongings of the Jews, including their clothing, and collected them for use or sale. Soviet troops discovered tens of thousands of shoes when they liberated the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland in July 1944. CONCENTRATION CAMPS

31 RESCUE Less than 1% of the non-Jewish European population helped any Jew in some form of rescue. Denmark and Bulgaria were the most successful national resistance movements against the Nazi’s attempt to deport their Jews.

32 AFTERMATH Most prisoners were emaciated to the point of being skeletal. Many camps had dead bodies lying in piles Many prisoners died even after liberation.

33 Former prisoners of the "little camp" in Buchenwald stare out from the wooden bunks in which they slept three to a "bed." Elie Wiesel is pictured in the second row of bunks, seventh from the left, next to the vertical beam. AFTERMATH

34 Eisenhower visited the camp to witness personally the evidence of atrocities. AFTERMATH

35 He publicly expressed his shock and revulsion, and he urged others to see the camps firsthand lest “the stories of Nazi brutality” be forgotten or dismissed as merely “propaganda.” AFTERMATH

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