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The American Revolution Kings Mountain and Cowpens as Microcosm.

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1 The American Revolution Kings Mountain and Cowpens as Microcosm

2 The Plan 1.Dis-spell many myths of the war 2.Tactics, terrain, and the rules of the battlefield 3.Discuss the war in the north 4.The move south 5.Cornwallis in South Carolina 6.Civil War 7.Kings Mountain 8.The interlude 9.Double envelopment at the Cowpens 10.Results through to Yorktown

3 Volusia County Standards Unit 4: The American Revolution The Early War Years Analyze the British plan to win the war Illustrate the military events that preceded the battle of Saratoga The War Continues Illustrate the condition of the Continental Army at Valley Forge Judge the significance of the US strategies, on the sea and in the south, and its effects on the British War is Won Trace GW’s changes in war strategy in 1781 and trace its effect in leading to an end to the war Analyze why America won the Revolutionary War despite its many disadvantages

4 MYTHS OF THE REVOLUTION

5 Hagiography Images of clenched- jawed men Images of clenched- jawed men Silently suffering Silently suffering Fighting for ideals Fighting for ideals Standing fast in the face of overwhelming odds Standing fast in the face of overwhelming odds Buck skins and hunting rifles Buck skins and hunting rifles

6 Officers Training and experience Training and experience Desire to emulate Desire to emulate OJT – a Darwinian master in war OJT – a Darwinian master in war Locally trained men (Morgan, Greene, etc) Locally trained men (Morgan, Greene, etc)

7 Troops American “army” relied on two main types of organizations American “army” relied on two main types of organizations – Continental Regulars – Militia Militia were further sub- divided by the state Militia were further sub- divided by the state Types of men in each category Types of men in each category Reliability issues Reliability issues

8 TACTICS, TERRAIN, WEAPONS AND RULES OF THE BATTLEFIELD

9 Tactics Myth of the “Indian play” Myth of the “Indian play” Desire of Washington to create a modern army Desire of Washington to create a modern army Training in the British or European method Training in the British or European method Guerilla or irregular warfare on the fringes of the campaign Guerilla or irregular warfare on the fringes of the campaign

10 Terrain There are three words that are the absolute key to understanding ANY battlefield There are three words that are the absolute key to understanding ANY battlefield – Terrain, Terrain, and Terrain! The proper use of terrain will make and break the two battles we are studying The proper use of terrain will make and break the two battles we are studying The high ground is generally the key The high ground is generally the key The military crest v. the geographic crest The military crest v. the geographic crest

11 Revolutionary Weapons Musket Musket – The bayonet Rifle Rifle Artillery Artillery

12 Rules of the Battlefield Offense v. Defense Offense v. Defense Defense has immense advantages Defense has immense advantages Need a ratio of 2.5 to 1 to achieve victory Need a ratio of 2.5 to 1 to achieve victory The momentum of battle The momentum of battle The psychology of battle The psychology of battle

13 WAR IN THE NORTH

14 1775 Lexington and Concord Lexington and Concord Retreat to Boston Retreat to Boston Bunker Hill Bunker Hill Siege of Boston Siege of Boston

15 The Failures of 1776 Defense of New York Defense of New York Retreat through New Jersey Retreat through New Jersey Defeat after defeat Defeat after defeat Potential disintegration of the northern army Potential disintegration of the northern army Washington’s Crossing Washington’s Crossing

16 Saratgoa The British plan The British plan Failures of execution Failures of execution Gates’ plan Gates’ plan Role of Morgan and the rifle Role of Morgan and the rifle Surrender and impact Surrender and impact

17 Valley Forge Winter The myths The myths The facts The facts Washington as leader Washington as leader Von Steuben Von Steuben The emergence of a REAL army The emergence of a REAL army The symbolism of the topography The symbolism of the topography

18 Stalemate! Monmouth Court House Monmouth Court House War of maneuver War of maneuver Carlisle Commission Carlisle Commission British Patriots

19 THE MOVE SOUTH

20 Invasion at Charleston Laying siege Laying siege Gen Lincoln’s miscalculation Gen Lincoln’s miscalculation Fall of Charleston Fall of Charleston Impact Impact

21 Gates at Camden Hero of Saratoga Hero of Saratoga Fatal errors Fatal errors Gates’ plan Gates’ plan Havoc in the field Havoc in the field Results of the battle Results of the battle Page 41

22 Partisans in the Backcountry Civil war in the Carolinas backcountry Civil war in the Carolinas backcountry Pickens Pickens Sumter Sumter Marion Marion Other groups Other groups

23 Move to Charlotte William Davie and the stone wall William Davie and the stone wall Reception Reception Hornets Nest Hornets Nest Attempts at pacification and intimidation Attempts at pacification and intimidation

24 KINGS MOUNTAIN

25 Ferguson Heads West Protect left flank Protect left flank Rid area of Patriot militia Rid area of Patriot militia Build up Loyalist morale Build up Loyalist morale Gilbert Town Gilbert Town

26 The Ill-fated Challenge Confluence of events Confluence of events The Scotts-Irish The Scotts-Irish The idea to bluff and bluster The idea to bluff and bluster The challenge The challenge The Patriot response The Patriot response

27 Move to the Ridge Ferguson Ferguson – Foray into SC – Slow march toward Charlotte Patriots Patriots – Sycamore Shoals – Quaker Meadows – Cowpens Arrival at the ridge Arrival at the ridge Page 56

28 The Plans Ferguson Ferguson – Allow reinforcements to come – Defend the high ground – Use typical British tactics Patriots Patriots – Arrive by stealth – Surround the hill – Attack in unison

29 45 Minutes of Fighting Beginning the battle Beginning the battle Three charges with cold steel Three charges with cold steel Swarming effect Swarming effect British tactical problems British tactical problems Gaining the summit Gaining the summit Death of Patrick Ferguson Death of Patrick Ferguson The surrender The surrender

30 Troop positions at 3:00pm October, 7, 1780

31 Patriots and Loyalists trade volleys and bayonet charges.

32 Charge and countercharge in the north and east sections of the field. Page 73

33 Squads, pairs, and individuals create a swarming effect.

34 Patriots take the crest and hem in the Loyalists who attempt to surrender. Page 75

35 Aftermath Burying the dead Burying the dead March of prisoners March of prisoners The trial The trial Page 85

36 A BRIEF INTERLUDE: THE WINTER OF 1780-1781

37 Cornwallis Moves Destruction of light forces Destruction of light forces Changing base of operations Changing base of operations Patriots re-occupy Charlotte Patriots re-occupy Charlotte

38 Greene Comes South Gates is sacked Gates is sacked Greene surveys the terrain Greene surveys the terrain Finds only the remnant of an army Finds only the remnant of an army

39 Cornwallis and Greene Scheme Cornwallis Re-invade North Carolina Re-invade North Carolina Destroy the flying army then Greene Destroy the flying army then Greene Use Tarleton’s Legion as the hammer Use Tarleton’s Legion as the hammer Greene Split army – Napoleon before his time Split army – Napoleon before his time Flying army operates in the rear of Cornwallis Flying army operates in the rear of Cornwallis

40 Schemes

41 Morgan and Tarleton get into Position Morgan wants to go to Georgia Morgan wants to go to Georgia Is camped on Pacolet Is camped on Pacolet Tarleton starts to move Tarleton starts to move Wants to get Morgan on the ridges of Kings Mountain Wants to get Morgan on the ridges of Kings Mountain Morgan begins his retrograde movement toward the Cowpens Morgan begins his retrograde movement toward the Cowpens Tarleton chases and almost catches Tarleton chases and almost catches

42 DOUBLE ENVELOPMENT AT THE COWPENS

43 Green River Road N The Rising Ground Hayes Rise Ravine Morgan Hill The Swale West Ravine Swampy Ground Terrain of the Cowpens

44

45 Morgan’s Plan Defense in depth Defense in depth Shock absorber effect Shock absorber effect Three defensive lines Three defensive lines Use terrain and types of troops to advantage Use terrain and types of troops to advantage

46 Morgan’s Disposition HammondMcDowell The Skirmish Line Roebuck Thomas Hayes Brandon N The Militia Line Tait Howard Triplett Washington The Main Line

47 Tarleton’s Rashness No planning No planning Did not attempt to flank Did not attempt to flank Did not survey the entire field Did not survey the entire field

48 Tarleton’s Disposition N 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Highlanders Dragoons Legion Cavalry 3lb “Grasshoppers” Long, thin line of battle w/o substantial reserves.

49 Both Sides Arrayed for Battle N 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Highlanders Dragoons Legion Cavalry McDowellHammond Roebuck Thomas Hayes Brandon Tait Howard Triplett Washington

50 The Battle: Stage One Tarleton sends 50 dragoons Tarleton sends 50 dragoons 15 get shot by the skirmish line 15 get shot by the skirmish line Tarleton decides to charge Tarleton decides to charge The skirmishers take out many officers or “epaulet men” The skirmishers take out many officers or “epaulet men” Skirmishers retreat Skirmishers retreat

51 Opening Gambit Dragoons McDowellHammond N 15 of 50 Dragoons are hit in the opening wave

52 Tarleton’s Initial Assault N 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Highlanders Dragoons Legion Cavalry McDowellHammond Roebuck Thomas Hayes Brandon Skirmishers take out many of Tarleton’s officers.

53 Stage Two Militia line keeps up a galling fire on Tarleton Militia line keeps up a galling fire on Tarleton Tarleton charges three times Tarleton charges three times Militia finally retreats after putting up pretty stiff resistance Militia finally retreats after putting up pretty stiff resistance Seeking safety of the Continentals Seeking safety of the Continentals Tarleton sends Dragoons, they get beat back by William Washington Tarleton sends Dragoons, they get beat back by William Washington Tarleton sees what he wants to see Tarleton sees what he wants to see

54 Fight on the Militia Line N 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Highlanders McDowell Hammond Roebuck Thomas Hayes Brandon Dragoons Tait Howard Triplett Washington Militia takes a deadly toll on Tarleton’s infantry and dragoons

55 Militia Retreats 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Highlanders McDowell Hammond Roebuck ThomasHayesBrandon Dragoons Tait Howard Triplett Washington N

56 Stage Three Tarleton comes upon the Continentals Tarleton comes upon the Continentals Trade volleys at close range Trade volleys at close range Frasier’s 71 st Highlanders 1 st battalion comes and overlaps the Continental right flank Frasier’s 71 st Highlanders 1 st battalion comes and overlaps the Continental right flank Misinterpreted order Misinterpreted order Retreat to “Morgan Hill” Retreat to “Morgan Hill”

57 The Main Line Tait Howard Triplett 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Dragoons Highlanders N

58 The Main Line Tait Howard Triplett 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Dragoons Highlanders N Highlanders begin to overlap the Continental right flank

59 The Order Tait Howard Triplett 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Dragoons Highlanders Tait N Howard orders the FLANK refused

60 Misunderstood Order Tait Howard Triplett 7 th Regiment Light Infantry Legion Infantry Dragoons Highlanders Tait N The far right companies refused the FRONT!

61 Stage Four Howard’s men reform Howard’s men reform Fire a volley at pointblank range Fire a volley at pointblank range Washington’s Dragoons overlap British right flank Washington’s Dragoons overlap British right flank

62 A Surprise TaitHowardTaitTriplett MilitiaDragoons 7 th Regiment Legion Infantry Highlanders Light Infantry N Morgan and Howard reform on the final hill and trade volleys

63 Counter Charge TaitHowardTaitTriplett Militia Dragoons 7 th Regiment Legion Infantry Highlanders Light Infantry N Continental fire and bayonets create havoc in the British ranks

64 The Double Envelopment TaitHoward Tait Triplett Militia Dragoons 7 th Regiment Legion Infantry Highlanders Light Infantry N British are staggered and the Dragoons and Militia hit them in the flanks

65 Final Act British are staggered British are staggered Begin to break Begin to break Pickens’ militia had reformed Pickens’ militia had reformed Enveloped the British left flank Enveloped the British left flank British surrender British surrender Tarleton orders a charge, only 50 come Tarleton orders a charge, only 50 come

66 Winning the Battle TaitHoward Tait Triplett Militia Dragoons 7 th Regiment Legion Infantry Highlanders Light Infantry N Flight ensues and the battle is won

67 Aftermath No slaughter of those surrendering No slaughter of those surrendering Tarleton gets away Tarleton gets away Morgan scared of Cornwallis close by Morgan scared of Cornwallis close by Moves army to Island Ford by nightfall Moves army to Island Ford by nightfall Race to the Catawba begins Race to the Catawba begins

68 RESULTS THROUGH TO YORKTOWN

69 Cornwallis’ Fatal Error Army too slow to catch Morgan Army too slow to catch Morgan Burns all baggage and equipment Burns all baggage and equipment Tries to live off the blighted land Tries to live off the blighted land Wears his army down marching and fighting on short rations Wears his army down marching and fighting on short rations

70 Race to the Dan Gets in a foot race with Greene Gets in a foot race with Greene Greene knows terrain Greene knows terrain Greene wins Greene wins

71 Guilford Court House Greene ends up giving battle near Greensboro Greene ends up giving battle near Greensboro Greene loses the field but bleeds Cornwallis’ army Greene loses the field but bleeds Cornwallis’ army Cornwallis turns toward VA and Greene goes to SC Cornwallis turns toward VA and Greene goes to SC Cornwallis will eventually end up in Yorktown Cornwallis will eventually end up in Yorktown

72 rbrown@aihe.info 704-470-4406 rbrown@aihe.info 704-470-4406 If you have any questions or comments please feel free to shoot me an email or give me a call.

73 Images Hagiography - http://www.kotsiou-tours.com/images/zindros/1-1.JPGhttp://www.kotsiou-tours.com/images/zindros/1-1.JPG GW - http://www.stjosephsmen.com/images/291_GeorgeWashingtonPraying. gif http://www.stjosephsmen.com/images/291_GeorgeWashingtonPraying. gif Militia - http://wwwpublic.ignet.army.mil/images/BunkerHill.jpghttp://wwwpublic.ignet.army.mil/images/BunkerHill.jpg Partisan Tactics - http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v474/autorank/Articles/kingsmt.jpg http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v474/autorank/Articles/kingsmt.jpg Move to the Ridge - http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/collections/nc/overmountain.jpg http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/collections/nc/overmountain.jpg KM B&W - http://www.amfirstbooks.com/IntroPages/ToolBarTopics/Articles/Featur ed_Authors/may,_captain_eric/May_works/May_Art/Battle_of_Kings_M ountain_B&W.579.jpg http://www.amfirstbooks.com/IntroPages/ToolBarTopics/Articles/Featur ed_Authors/may,_captain_eric/May_works/May_Art/Battle_of_Kings_M ountain_B&W.579.jpg Patriot Response. http://www.sitemason.com/files/bmz4FW/overmountainmen.jpg http://www.sitemason.com/files/bmz4FW/overmountainmen.jpg Ft at Sycamore Shoals – www.tnhistoryforkids.comwww.tnhistoryforkids.com B&W Map to Charlotte - http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/22/images/hh22c2.jpg http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/22/images/hh22c2.jpg Fusiliers Marching - http://bethtrissel.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/british-soldiers4.jpg http://bethtrissel.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/british-soldiers4.jpg KM Painting - http://kmathletics.com/images/dtkm.jpghttp://kmathletics.com/images/dtkm.jpg Death of Ferguson - http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary- war/battles/king-mountain-monument.jpghttp://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary- war/battles/king-mountain-monument.jpg Hanging - http://www.britishbattles.com/images/hanging-british- officer.jpghttp://www.britishbattles.com/images/hanging-british- officer.jpg Cornwallis Moves - http://www.nps.gov/history/seac/socamap.jpghttp://www.nps.gov/history/seac/socamap.jpg Troiani Print - http://www.historicalartprints.com/images/product_large/the_battle_of _cowpens_lg.jpg http://www.historicalartprints.com/images/product_large/the_battle_of _cowpens_lg.jpg Cornwallis - http://www.trading-ford.org/images/Cornwallis_portrait.jpghttp://www.trading-ford.org/images/Cornwallis_portrait.jpg Shock Absorber - http://www.basiccarrepair.com/images/255-1.jpghttp://www.basiccarrepair.com/images/255-1.jpg Tarleton - http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/images/slavery_business_gall ery_07.jpg http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/images/slavery_business_gall ery_07.jpg Cornwallis - http://home.golden.net/~marg/bansite/friends/images/s_cornwallis.jpg http://home.golden.net/~marg/bansite/friends/images/s_cornwallis.jpg Greene - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/nathanaelgreene.jpg http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/nathanaelgreene.jpg Morgan - http://www.nps.gov/cowp/forteachers/images/morgan3.jpghttp://www.nps.gov/cowp/forteachers/images/morgan3.jpg Camden - http://www.britishbattles.com/images/camden/map-05.gifhttp://www.britishbattles.com/images/camden/map-05.gif Sumter - http://www.nndb.com/people/123/000052964/thomas-sumter-1- sized.jpghttp://www.nndb.com/people/123/000052964/thomas-sumter-1- sized.jpg Marion - http://teachers.greenville.k12.sc.us/sites/ekrezdor/South%20Carolina/Francis %20Marion-%20Swamp%20Fox.bmp http://teachers.greenville.k12.sc.us/sites/ekrezdor/South%20Carolina/Francis %20Marion-%20Swamp%20Fox.bmp Ferguson - http://www.americanrevolution.org/ferguson.gifhttp://www.americanrevolution.org/ferguson.gif Siege of Charleston - http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/graphics/map14_a.gif http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/graphics/map14_a.gif Brandywine - http://www.brandywinesoldiers.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/11/americans-holding-their-ground-at-the-battle-of- the-brandywine-american-revolution-c-1777-web.jpghttp://www.brandywinesoldiers.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/11/americans-holding-their-ground-at-the-battle-of- the-brandywine-american-revolution-c-1777-web.jpg Bunker Hill - http://www.oldgloryprints.com/Bunker_Hill.jpghttp://www.oldgloryprints.com/Bunker_Hill.jpg Washington’s Crossing - http://www.ushistory.org/WashingtonCrossing/images/crossing_2.jpg http://www.ushistory.org/WashingtonCrossing/images/crossing_2.jpg Gates - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/GATES.jpg http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/GATES.jpg Saratoga - http://theamericanrevolution.org/images/battles/saratog1.jpghttp://theamericanrevolution.org/images/battles/saratog1.jpg


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