Presentation on theme: "Nadine Mejia California State University, Fresno"— Presentation transcript:
1Nadine Mejia California State University, Fresno Thesis PresentationNadine MejiaCalifornia State University, Fresno
2The Experiences of Army National Guard Female Veterans to Iraq and/or Afghanistan during the Time of the Global War of Terrorism
3Background Information The Global War on Terrorism result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.There were two major wars: Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).Soldiers have been involved for over 10 years and it is estimated that 2 million soldiers have been deployed (Friends Committee on National Legislation, 2011; Lara-Cinisomo et al., 2012)One in three returning Veterans from Iraq and/or Afghanistan will develop Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and returning Veterans have a higher prevalence rate for depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance abuse. (Friends Committee on National Legislation, 2011; Haskell et al., 2010; Veterans and PTSD Statistics, 2013)Returning Veterans experience communication breakdown and decreased relationship bond with family/friends (Pfefferbaum et al., 2011; Sherman & Bowling, 2011).
4Description of Army National Guard Female Veteran Population Served overseas in a warzone.Employed with the United States Army part-time and usually serve one weekend a month and two weeks during the summer.Not constantly in the military mindset, but live both a civilian and military life style.Longer deployment times.Do not train as often and are usually 5 to 10 years older than Army Active Duty Female Veterans (Pfefferbaum et al., 2011).
5Research Questions and Gap in the Literature Central QuestionHow do Army National Guard Female Veterans experience deployments to Iraq, and/or Afghanistan during the time of the War on Terrorism?Sub QuestionsWhat are the mental health experiences of Army National Guard Female Veterans while deployed?What are the physical health experiences of Army National Guard Female Veterans while deployed?What are the hardships experienced by Army National Guard Female Veterans while deployed?How do Army National Guard Female Veterans experience home interpersonal relationships while deployed?
6Theoretical Orientation Trauma TheorySystems TheoryMarked a shift in the perspective of individuals who experienced a traumatic event from the idea that they are weak to they are individuals who need aid in getting better.Addresses central dialectic of psychological trauma.Describes the cognitive processes that are involved with many mental health disordersDescribed as taking a holistic view of the individual and the myriad of micro, mezzo, and macro systems that affect the person’s experience of life and influence their view of future possibilities.This description is similar in concept to what people label as multisystem theory.
7Methodology Phenomenological Study Phenomenon is serving overseas Shared characteristics included:FemaleActive member of the National GuardDeployed to Iraq and/or Afghanistan while in the Army National Guard during the time frame of the War on Terrorism
9Mental HealthEach participant experienced some form and intensity of trauma. They shared a common perception of reality that consisted of trauma being part of their daily reality while deployed.This study found the participants utilized two main coping skills: suppressing emotions and mentally preparing for the worst.Many participants developed mental health concerns after they returned home and the chief complaint was anxiety.
10Physical HealthThe participants of this study experienced a variety of physical health concerns which included: back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, TBI, pregnancy, exhaustion, rosacea, and the common cold.One participant was diagnosed with TBI and another participant became pregnant while deployed.The chief complaint for physical health was breathing problems due to the air quality, dust and sand, and burn pits in both countries.
11Hardships While Deployed There were several trends that emerged from the study that fall under this theme which included: leadership difficulties, living conditions, working conditions, and gossip.One of the coping skills for handling these hardships for the participants was building a bond with fellow Veterans that they were deployed with.
12Home Interpersonal Relationships All the participants reported having strong support systems from family and friends.The participants shared with their loved ones their experiences after they returned home.Two participants were going through a divorce and shared that was a hardship for them.
13Theories Trauma Theory Systems Theory The participants perceived trauma as a norm instead of abnormal because they were in a warzone and conflict and battle were their reality while deployed.When the participants returned home, they were still in that increased state of arousal and this lead to anxiety.Once the participants begun processing their past traumas upon returning home from deployment, mental health symptoms appeared to manifest.Systems TheoryWhen the participants were involved with strong family support and close rapport with other Veterans, these systems affect the participants on the micro and macro level with having increased confidence and unit cohesion.When the participants had poor leadership this in turn led to a decrease in morale and confidence in the leadership.The participants would develop coping skills based on how these systems affected them.
14Limitations and Suggestions for Further Research Small Sample SizeResearcher Potential BiasFurther ResearchResearch each theme separatelyMental HealthPhysical HealthHardships While DeployedHome Interpersonal RelationshipsComparison study of both conflicts OIF and OEF
15Implications There are many subpopulations of Veterans It is a disservice to cluster all Veterans togetherFoster further researchEnsure cultural competency and confidence when working with diverse populationsTraining on the various subgroups of VeteransEmployee services that are Veterans
16ReferencesFriends Committee on National Legislation. (2011). Ten years later: talking points and by the numbers. Retrieved fromHaskell, S., Gordon, K., Mattocks, K., Duggal, M., Erdos, J., et al. (2010). Gender differences in rates of depression, PTSD, pain, obesity, and military sexual trauma among Connecticut war Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 19(2),Lara-Cinisomo, S., Chandra, A., Burns, R., Jaycox, L., Tanielian, T., Ruder, T., Han, B. (2012). A mixed-method approach to understanding the experiences of non-deployed military caregivers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(2),Pfefferbaum, B., Houston, J., Sherman, M., & Melson, A. (2011). Children of national guard troops deployed in the global war on terrorism. Journal of Loss & Trauma, 16(4),Sherman, M., & Bowling, U. (2011). Challenges and opportunities for intervening with couples in the aftermath of the global war on terrorism. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 41(4),Veterans and PTSD Statistics. (2013). Veterans statistics: PTSD, depression, TBI, suicide. Retrieved from