Presentation on theme: "McDonough Kennedy McDonough Bring it m9 U wot m8."— Presentation transcript:
McDonough Kennedy McDonough Bring it m9 U wot m8
BANG Economy - Kennedy “[The Liberal’s free trade doctrines] saw protectionism as more harmful than helpful to those sectors of the economy that bolstered the country’s international position, particularly finance, shipping, and other ‘invisibles’” “[For the Liberal’s and Conservatives] the common goal was the development of the areas untapped…resources. Chamberlain set matters in motion by encouraging economic investment In summary, Kennedy says that both the Liberals and Conservatives wanted to invest in international colonies with the main goal of obtaining the nation’s natural resources for economic development. He goes on to say that the Liberals saw protectionism as a hindrance to Britain’s economic sectors that were vital for the nation’s international position.
POW Economy - McDonough “The British Empire not only survived all the traumas produced by the Boer War but expanded as a result of its victory… The economic statistics seem to support this interpretation” “Between 1903 and 1914 British exports to the Empire increased by 32%, imports from the Empire increased by 31%, British trade with Africa doubled and 42% of all British overseas investment went to the Empire.” McDonough tells us that the Boer War resulted in significant developments to the British Empire. In fact, in the aftermath of the Boer War, the British economy greatly improved. McDonough’s statistics support this. McDonough’s article expands on Kennedy’s conclusion that the Liberals and the Conservatives wanted to invest economically in Africa. McDonough develops this by saying that this resulted in “British trade with Africa [doubling].”
BANG The Boer War set to realign British politics Liberal Imperialists/Conservative Unionists both advocated aggressive international pursuit Military - Kennedy Kennedy is seen to believe the Boer War had the potential to change the ways in which the British political and military systems worked with each other to create a strong and more able force.
POW Military - McDonough Pax Britannica disrupted – Britain no longer the world’s policemen Colonial war would no longer interest the public until the Falklands ‘Splendid isolation’ – no military alliances entered into with other major powers McDonough also gives the impression that the Boer War had the potential to alter the face of British politics and military, however he believes that the society lost interest in defending the Empire after the War.
BANG International Standing - Kennedy “Disturbed by what he saw as signs that Britain’s standing on the world stage was slipping” “…troubling shifts that had occurred on the world scene” Kennedy’s viewpoint is that the movements of Britain’s world standing as a result of the Boer War are not in its favour and that it is no longer viewed as having an indestructible Empire to overpower the globe with.
POW International Standing - McDonough “The idea that Britain was the ‘world’s policeman’ who could be called upon in an emergency to defend the weak nations against the ambitions of the strong was deeply discredited” “The war also brought about a ‘a revolution in British foreign relations’” “No longer was Britain in a position to give moral lectures to anybody” As a result of the Boer war, he believes Britain had not only been discredited or undermined as a powerful international force (in terms of strength), but furthermore recognises that its role as an “international policeman”, i.e. a nation which holds both significant power and responsibility for the upkeep international peace, had been seen to act brutally, destroyed its image.
BANG Political Support - Kennedy “[Liberal Imperialists and Conservative Unions] advocated the aggressive pursuit of British imperial interests abroad” “The Liberals reassured the electorate that the free trade doctrines that had brought Britain its global dominance would not be abandoned.” “Conciliation marked the Liberal approach to India as well.” “When colonial nationalism posed no challenge, Liberal policies were scarcely indistinguishable from Conservative Unionist. In tropical Africa…the common goal was the development of the area’s untapped agricultural and mineral resources.” Kennedy believes that both the Liberals and the Conservatives supported the idea of imperialism. However the method in which imperialism was achieved differed between the two parties. The Conservatives had no concern over satisfying any British colonies and only cared for any potential gains for Britain. On the contrary, the Liberals were desperate to be pragmatic.
POW Political Support - McDonough “The Liberal Colonial Secretary expressed his belief that that ‘the Empire is held together by a silk cord: twist the cord intro a whiplash and a crack of the lash would be the death knell of the Empire’” “[Imperialism] became seen as a right-wing policy associated with ‘die hard’ Conservatives” McDonough believes that the Liberals and Conservatives have contrasting opinions. He states that the Liberals wanted to minimise Britain’s aggression in an effort to keep good relations with other powers. The Conservatives were seen as hardcore imperialists who had the primary goal of expanding the empire. They didn’t care much for keeping good relations internationally. This agrees with Kennedy to an extent. However McDonough goes further to say that the lack of aggression from the Liberals was due to their acknowledgement of the instability of the Empire.
BANG Popular Support - Kennedy “Some historians have seen the 1906 election as a repudiation of imperialism” “The Liberals reassured the electorate that the free trade doctrines that had brought Britain its global dominance would not be abandoned” Kennedy believes that imperialism was slowly starting to become rejected. He also mentions that the British citizens were warming towards the Liberal idea of free trade. He continues to say how this could in fact be a key contributor to the Liberal landslide victory of 1906. This provides further evidence that popular support was distancing itself from imperialism.
POW Popular Support - McDonough “Imperialism became synonymous with ‘maverick politicians’ “ “[Imperialism] became seen as a right-wing policy associated with ‘die-hard’ Conservatives” “[The Boer War] really marks the dividing line between the passionate imperialism of late-Victorian England and the loss of self-confidence in Britain about its future” “After the Boer War the British never believed as strongly as they had before” McDonough says that preceding the Boer War, Britons had a strong support for the empire and saw it as a source of pride. He goes on to say that the Boer War marked a turning point in this public opinion. The war decreased the self confidence of the British population and as a result there was a decline in imperialist support. In fact after the war, imperialism was an idea with negative connotations.
BANG Turning Point - Kennedy “For a time it appeared the South African War would clear the way for a major realignment of British politics” “Disturbed by what he saw as signs that Britain’s standing on the world stage was slipping” He not only acknowledges that the Boer war was, from many people’s perspectives, a turning point, but he actually links these beliefs to later happenings / developments, ie, Chamberlain was ‘disturbed’ as stated in the quote above, which lead to him introducing tariff reform, this being an after- effect of the Boer War. However there are few examples which he gives of ways in which he marks the Boer War as a turning point in society.
BOSH Turning Point - McDonough “Boer War was clearly one of those rare turning points in the history of Empire between 1815 and 1914” “Many contemporaries viewed it as ‘the first nail in the coffin of the British Empire’” “British Empire not only survived all the traumas…but expanded as a result of its victory and became even more important for British trade and investment” “The Boer War really marks the dividing line between the passionate imperialism of late-Victorian England and the loss of self-confidence in Britain” “After the Boer War the British never believed as strongly as they had before that the British Empire was one on which the sun would never set McDonough acknowledges that the Boer War was, in the eyes of many, a turning point, and to an extent agrees, however he does not regard it as the beginning of the end of the Empire. Whilst confidence in the Empire fell, he persists that the Empire’s trade and international relations were able to flourish after the War and it marked more of a change in public and political opinion rather than simply damaging it beyond repair.