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African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant

2 CONDITIONS IN EARLY 20 TH CENTURY AMERICA…

3 African Americans Had to deal with: – Jim Crow (South) – Lynchings (mostly in South) – Racism (North) – Being treated like second class citizens Things were not changing as quickly as black leaders would have liked

4 IT SEEMED LIKE RACIAL TENSIONS KEPT GETTING WORSE…

5 Brownsville Affair (1906)

6 Brownsville Affair

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10 Occurred between black soldiers and white townsfolk Blacks – Came from all over the United States – Most were not used to the discrimination they faced in Texas

11 The Event A white bartender was killed A white police officer was shot

12 Locals Reaction Accusations that black soldiers were behind the killings

13 Army’s (Initial) Reaction All blacks were on base when the shootings occurred

14 Follow-Up Whites were insistent it was black soldiers Framed blacks by placing shell casings near the scene

15 Black Soldiers Never given any trial

16 The President Gets Involved Discharged 167 black servicemen – Remember, they had NOT been found guilty or even put on trial Most had served in the army for over 20 years and were close to retirement – Lost their pensions

17 Reaction of Others African-Americans= outraged Booker T Washington= privately asks Roosevelt to reconsider his decision (Roosevelt refuses) Senate= looks into the affair but supports Roosevelt

18 Brownsville Affair During the 1970s, there was a new investigation and it was found that the soldiers had nothing to do with the killings

19 Atlanta Riot (1906)

20 Atlanta

21 Atlanta Riot

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25 Atlanta Center of New South Strong Economy

26 African-Americans in Atlanta Many black intellectuals Had 6 black colleges HOWEVER, Jim Crow laws prevailed Known as one of THE most segregated cities in America

27 Lead Up to the Riot Allegations black men were attacking white women Plays into racial stereotypes of the time

28 Riot Over 10,000 whites gather to attack African- Americans “Kill the niggers!”

29 Aftermath of the Attack 25 official black deaths Unofficially, closer to 100 died

30 CREATION OF THE NAACP

31 NAACP NAACP= National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

32 NAACP

33 Idea for the organization came from white liberals Called together 60 people – 53 whites – 7 blacks

34 W.E.B. Du Bois

35 Ida B. Wells

36 Mary Church Terrell

37 Goal Enforcement of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments

38 Organization Chapters existed throughout the country Grew quickly – members – branches and 43,994 members – over 90,000 members and 300 branches

39 How They Challenged the System: Court

40 Guinn v. U.S. Challenged the Grandfather law in Oklahoma

41 Buchanan v. Warley Challenged the city of Louisville only allowing African-Americans to buy property in certain parts of town

42 Biggest Goal of the NAACP

43 DU BOIS AND THE NAACP…

44 Du Bois Offered position of the Director of Publicity and Research

45 The Crisis

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47 Official magazine of the NAACP Du Bois= Editor Discussed racism in its many forms Over 100,000 subscribers by 1920

48 REACTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANS TO THE NAACP

49 Ida B Wells Left because she felt the NAACP lacked action based initiatives

50 William Monroe Trotter

51 William Monroe Trotter’s Issues with the NAACP Did not like how whites had so much power in the NAACP

52 William Monroe Trotter’s Issues with the NAACP Still feuding with Du Bois

53 National Equal Rights League

54 Had the same goals as the NAACP Key difference: members were all black

55 National Equal Rights League Held meetings with President Wilson in the White House about segregation in federal offices

56 The Press on Trotter and the NERL “merely a nigger…not a Booker T Washington type of colored man…”

57 Trotter and the NERL By the 1920s, Trotter had lost most of his popularity NERL membership was almost completely gone

58 Booker T. Washington and the NAACP

59 Booker T Washington and the NAACP Boycotted the effort to create the NAACP

60 Booker T Washington and the NAACP Criticized the group’s methods Preferred quiet diplomacy

61 AFRICAN AMERICANS DURING WORLD WAR I

62 Leading to World War I Era of Jim Crow laws and Birth of a Nation Many negative stereotypes of blacks in that movie – Black men as rapists, etc. – Idea of “negro rule” – KKK= glorified

63 The Birth of a Nation

64 Birth of a Nation Screened in the White House

65 Birth of a Nation Led to the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan KKK used it as a recruiting tool

66 KKK in Birth of a Nation

67 Promoting White Solidarity

68 Birth of a Nation NAACP fought against this movie Tried to get it banned

69 The Great Migration

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71 Great Migration

72 The Great Migration African-Americans moving from the South to North in search of new educational and career opportunities – Went from rural to urban areas – Wanted to escape poverty and racism

73 The Great Migration Factories could no longer higher immigrants so they needed a new source of labor

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75 Ads for Workers

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78 The Great Migration Discovered- racism was equally bad in the north Job opportunities weren’t what they had hoped But: – Men had the right to vote

79 BLACKS IN THE WAR EFFORT

80 African American Women

81 African-American Women Founded the circle for Negro War Relief African-American equivalent to the Red Cross Worked with various national organizations that would accept their help

82 Wartime Integration??? Some whites were upset that African- Americans were being excluded from the war effort Put pressure on private and governmental organizations to change their policies Little changed Key: not all blacks want to integrate

83 Question: Should Black Men Support the War??? Many thought yes Wanted to prove their loyalty to their country

84 African-American Men

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86 Fought not only for the United States but also to achieve equal rights for African Americans Served with distinction during the war

87 African-American Men Mainly served in Army Not allowed in Marines Limited roles in Navy and Coast Guard

88 William Monroe Trotter and WW1 Opposed the establishment of segregated officer training facilities Is able to influence many African-American men in Boston not to enlist

89 ONCE ENLISTED BLACK MEN EXPERIENCED RACIAL TENSIONS…

90 Ft. Logan Incident

91 Ft Logan Incident Ft Logan- close to Houston

92 Houston, TX Largest black population in the state Cops were especially brutal to African- Americans

93 Ft Logan Soldiers were not used to harassment by police – Many were beaten for no reason Many were from the north and not used to Jim Crow laws

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97 Ft Logan Incident Rumor that a Corporal had been killed Men had enough and started to riot

98 Ft Logan Incident Soldiers went into Houston and started shooting 16 whites/ 4 blacks dead

99 Aftermath Men were court-marshaled 19 sentenced to death 43 to life imprisonment Denied any right to appeal their sentence

100 Aftermath Large-scale protests President Wilson commuted some sentences, but most who were convicted were still put to death

101 W.E.B. Du Bois and WW1 Used The Crisis to show unfair treatment of black soldiers Still believed blacks should serve in the army

102 African-American Men in the Army Never given the same training as whites Many were limited to labor battalions – Served as cooks, etc.

103 African-American Men This is the first time that blacks are allowed to become officers – Only over all-black units – White men refused to salute them – Not allowed into officers clubs

104 African American Men Fought with valor during WW1

105 369 th

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108 Post WW1 Black soldiers return with a new confidence Emergence of the “New Negro” Hope to be treated as equals

109 Post- World War I Increase in racial tensions Fear that blacks would demand equality Number of lynchings increased – Soldiers were lynched in uniform

110 Red Summer

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113 Series of race riots started by whites going into black neighborhoods in the aftermath of World War I Took place in over 3000 cities

114 Reaction of Whites Genuine surprise blacks fought back

115 Reaction of Whites “There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race.”

116 African Americans and the Treaty of Versailles

117 Treaty of Versailles

118 African Americans and the Treaty of Versailles 11 African-American delegates were chosen to attend the peace negotiations State Department refused to issue visas

119 Du Bois Post WW1 Held a Pan-African Conference Supported African colonies desire for independence

120 African Americans and the Treaty of Versailles US entered the war to “make the world safe for democracy” African Americans argued there was no democracy for them in the US – Racism – Injustice – Segregation

121 Trotter and the Aftermath of the War Snuck over to France to take part in the negotiations By the time he had arrived, the terms had been decided

122 BLACKS ROLE IN WW1 LED TO THE EMERGENCE OF NEW LEADERS/ STRATEGIES GOING INTO THE 1920S…

123 Marcus Garvey

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127 Born in Jamaica

128 UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association) 1914 Influenced by Booker T Washington Initially supports Washington’s policies of accomodationism

129 UNIA in the USA Garvey comes to meet with Washington Washington- dead

130 UNIA in the USA Garvey moves to New York

131 UNIA in the USA Changes its mission Promotes a separatist philosophy

132 UNIA in the USA Grows quickly – UNIA had 17 members – over 1000 branches of the UNIA all over the US, Canada, Caribbean, Central America, and Africa

133 UNIA Largest mass movement in black history Members- ordinary blacks Had divisions for men, women, and children

134 Pan-Africanism and Black Nationalism

135 Meant to Symbolize Black Unity

136 “Black is Beautiful”

137 “Garveyism” Form of Pan-Africanism Believed blacks should have a country and a government of their own Wants his supporters to move to Africa

138 Negro World

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141 1918 Distributed worldwide Had over 200,000 US subscribers at its peak

142 Negro World Promoting Black is Beautiful Ideal Refused to accept ads from skin bleaches or hair straighteners

143 Negro World banned from parts of Africa and the Caribbean

144 Black Star Line

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149 Meant to facilitate trade between the US, Africa, and the Caribbean Would also help blacks go to Africa

150 Black Star Line Meant to serve as a symbol of black enterprise

151 Black Star Line Sold shares for $5 Meant to give people pride that they owned a little bit of a business

152 Black Star Line Dismantled in 1922 – Expensive repairs – Unhappy crews – Mismanagement and corruption

153 Garvey and the US Government US government was very suspicious of Garvey

154 J. Edgar Hoover

155 Garvey and the Bureau of Investigation Spied on Reported on activities of the UNIA in at least 24 US cities

156 Garvey and the US Government arrested for mail fraud Jailed Deported back to Jamaica While in jail, membership in the UNIA drops Garvey is never able to recover the power he once had

157 What Did Other Black Leaders Think of Garvey? Du Bois was especially critical of him

158 Importance of Garvey Did not feel racially inferior Allowed American blacks to feel good about themselves


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