Geography - Makes up nearly half of Canada’s land surface - Stretches from Arctic Islands in the North to the Canadian-USA Border - Covers parts of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and North West Territories - Cities include Sudbury, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec, Iqaluit, Thunder Bay, Winnipeg.
Geology Is one of the oldest landforms in the world Over Millions of years, weathering and erosion, especially from Glaciers, wore the land down to flat bare rock, lakes and wetlands Thin Soil makes area unsuitable for farming Once a volcanic mountain region Most of the rocks in the area have been changed into metamorphic rocks by heat and pressure Created many Valuable minerals such as Copper, Gold, Lead, Diamonds, Platinum and Nickel
Economic Development 1. Aboriginal people such as the Cree hunted, gathered and fished (traditional economy) 2. Europeans came to Canada and started the Fur Trade, which became dominant 3. Forestry and pulp & paper industry became important
Economic Development (Cont.) Mines and smelters - important sine early 20th century Sault Ste. Marie - Algoma Steel has dominated local economy since 1901
Current Economy Relies heavily on natural resources Very sensitive to international prices - commodities produced fluctuate in price due to global supply-and- demand Resources eventually run out and mines shut down Communities around mines struggle to survive once they mines close up i.e. Schefferville, Quebec, 1981 - Iron Ore Company of Canada closed because the prices for iron were too low to make a profit 4000 people left Schefferville after this happened
Current Economy (Cont.) Solution to the aftermath of shut down mines - nearby communities don't rely on mines Mining companies fly in employees and equipment from other areas Workers stay for 2-3 weeks in temporary camps When the mine shuts down, the mine is removed
Challenges Mines have produced dangerous stockpiles of mineral waste, known as tailings Refining operations have produced high levels of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, leading to acid rain Water systems, plants and wildlife are all affected by acid rain
Population Growth Many larger mining cities, such as Sudbury, have developed tourism, recreation, and retirement facilities