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Randolph Miller.  Pan-Asianism emphasized need for Asian unity  Traditionally China was seen as the center of Asia  Originally against the encroachment.

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Presentation on theme: "Randolph Miller.  Pan-Asianism emphasized need for Asian unity  Traditionally China was seen as the center of Asia  Originally against the encroachment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Randolph Miller

2  Pan-Asianism emphasized need for Asian unity  Traditionally China was seen as the center of Asia  Originally against the encroachment of Western colonialism, influence, and imperialism  Functioned as a tool for legitimizing Japan’s claim for hegemony in East Asia and Japanese colonial rule  “Asian values” were a response to the supposed universality of Western thought

3  Pan-Asianism was appealing at a time when Asian nations had strong economic bonds  Pan-Asianism was omnipotent force in modern Japan’s foreign policy and in the process of creating Japan’s identity  During the Meiji era ( ) it became the opposite of its “realist” foreign policy, in which Japan would join club of great powers.

4  Pan-Asianism started in mid-nineteenth century because China and Japan were forced to open up their markets after a long period of isolationism and join the system of international relations, which was dominated by Western powers.  In the aftermath of the Opium Wars, China looked weak against Europe

5  Over time Japan grew more powerful and plans to return to Asia became plans to lead Asia  Japan got confidence thanks to victory in Russo-Japanese War of

6  European countries had a fear of “Yellow Peril”, the idea that a united “yellow race” would threaten European supremacy  Japan wanted to play nice with Europe and even tried to suppress the Pan- Asianism movement, even jailing authors of Pan- Asianism writings

7  Japanese politician  Central figure in Pan- Asian movement  After the First Sino- Japanese War, created the East Asian Common Culture Society, to improve relations between Japan and China

8  Believed Japan and Korea should merge

9  Japanese author and philosopher  Wrote about how Japan would lead Asia after a military coup  Said Japan’s population was growing, so it would have to acquire more territory  His last book led to a failed coup attempt, so he was executed

10  Before World War I, politicians in Japan avoided Pan-Asianism rhetoric.  After the Great War, it became more acceptable to say “The fate of Asia must be decided by Asians.”

11  Cultural Unity of the peoples and nations of East Asia, based on the common use of Chinese characters (Kanji)  “racial” kinship of East Asian peoples, categorized by the west as the “yellow race”  Geographical proximity and historical legacy of the Sinocentric order  The feeling of a “common” destiny in the struggle of Asian peoples against Western Imperialism, westernization, and modernization

12  Wrote a 1200 page text called Theory of Pan- Asianism  Responding to criticism of the book said “Some people denounce pan-Asianism as being based on a narrow racist frame of mind. But racial prejudices are what the white nations have taught us. To speak of the white peril and to advocate pan-Asianism cannot touch the malicious propagation by Europeans and Americans of the yellow peril and their call for a white alliance. While the former is defensive, passive and pacifist, the latter is offensive, aggressive and imperialistic.”

13  "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers"  Kiyoshi Miki invented idea, but was outraged that it was used to justify aggressive expansion in China and southeast Asia

14  Wrote two books arguing for the existance of Yamashita’s gold  The Yamato Dynasty: the Secret History of Japan’s Imperial Famiy  Gold Warriors: America’s Secret Recovery of Yamashita’s Gold

15  AKA Yamashita’s Treasure  Loot that Japan stole from southeast Asia that was hidden in underground in the Philippines during World War II  Looted from banks, homes, churches, and everywhere else

16  General who commanded Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1944  Hanged in 1946 for war attrocities


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