Presentation on theme: "SIDE WAR TAKING PLACE… How do newspapers go to war?"— Presentation transcript:
SIDE WAR TAKING PLACE… How do newspapers go to war?
Cuba Weyler’s actions fueled a war between American newspaper tycoons Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) And William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) Weyler personified “the horrible Spanish” - Didn’t attack King of Spain (14 yrs old) - Didn’t attack King’s mom -Austrian princess (not very Spanish) BUT here was Weyler… and How are Americans affected by Cuban events? Pulitzer Hearst Both publishers knew that a war with Spain would be big news resulting in big sales and profits
Cuba BY PRINTING EXAGGERATED ACCOUNTS OF “BUTCHER” WEYLER’S BRUTALITY -Poisoned wells; children being thrown to sharks deepened sympathy for rebels By 1898, many Americans demanded that the United States help free the Cubans from Spain. Legitimate reports of Cuban suffering mixed with sensationalized stories became known as …? YELLOW JOURNALISM How do newspapers go to war?
Cuba Spain wasn’t going to just sit back and do nothing… - restricted US reporters (no combat areas) *Some correspondents claimed they were communicating secretly with rebels *Others gathered in Havana's (capital) bars and made up battle stories When Frederic Remington (artist sent by Hearst to illustrate news stories) reported unlikely war between US and Spain, (“Everything is quiet. There is no trouble. There will be no war. I wish to return.”) Hearst reportedly replied “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war ”
Cuba Many Americans sympathized with Cuban rebels -demanded US should intervene President McKinley preferred to avoid war – tried diplomatic means to resolve the crisis (just give Cuba their independence Spain refused!) However…Spain does come back with limited terms: 1) Spain recalled Weyler 2) Modified concentration camp policies 3) Offered Cuba limited self-government (insurgents wanted full independence!)
Cuba HOWEVER, in Feb 1898 - NEW YORK JOURNAL published a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome (Spanish minister to US) - How was it obtained? A Cuban rebel stole the letter from a Havana post office and leaked it to newspaper What was the intended audience of this letter? In 3 or 4 words, describe the tone of the letter Senor Don Jose Canalejas - Prime Minister of Spain
Cuba How does De Lome view the Cuban rebels? How is the American President described or portrayed? How is De Lome aware of the media and world politics? How do you think a newspaper tycoon like William Randolph Hearst would use this letter to sell newspapers Waste of time to negotiate with them Eventually return Supported/encouraged by American Public opinion WEAK – catering to the rabble (goes along with party and public) Not sure if McKinley will prove bad to Spain Newspapers (reporters are down in the Cuban hotels) Yellow Journalism – Make Spain look bad (disrespecting the President) - Some Americans agreed with letter ( even assist. Sec of Navy T. Roosevelt– he “has no more backbone than a chocolate éclair!”) BUT resented criticism of their President – de Lome apologized and resigned
Why? Previously, McKinley had sent U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to protect American lives and property (riots in Havana) On February 15- an explosion sent the ship’s ammo up in flames and it SANK Causalities – 266 American officers and crew died A few days after publication of letter resentment towards Spain turned to OUTRAGE!
What happened? Who was responsible…? Who was responsible – Who did journalists hold responsible? Journal’s headlines - SPAIN Hearst’s paper offered how much reward for capture of the SPANIARDS who supposedly committed the outrage?
A COMPARISON LOOK AT THE JOURNAL AND THE TIMES WAIT… Where did the New York Times come from…I thought it was the New York World and the New York Journal? The New York Times had been around since 1850s. In 1897, new publisher took over and he coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print“ - this was a jab at competing papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal which were known for lurid yellow journalism. Perhaps you will notice a difference as you are reading…
“Remember the Maine” was the battle cry now The Press called for President McKinley to declare WAR ON SPAIN!
Wasn’t just in the newspapers… Awake United States! This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 16, 1898 and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898. Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry! How proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation ’ s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain! Eagle soar on high, And sound the battle cry Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag! According to this song, who sunk the Maine?
The sinking of the Maine remains an important catalyst that drive the U.S. to war with Spain and fueled the flames of imperialism