Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: How did the influx of silver from the Americas impact life in the land Empires of Eurasia?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: How did the influx of silver from the Americas impact life in the land Empires of Eurasia?
Chapter 24 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism 1800-1870
I. The Ottoman Empire A.Egypt & the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840 1.Napoleonic Invasion Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 Defeated the Mamluk forces French withdrew in 1801, leaving a power vacuum
I. The Ottoman Empire 2.Muhammad Ali Commander in Ottoman army Sent by Sultan to regain control of Egypt Took place of governor in 1805 Removed Mamluk’s from power in 1811
I. The Ottoman Empire 2. Military Reforms Based on the French military practices -Conscription army -Military schools that taught modern European techniques -Officers trained in France
I. The Ottoman Empire 3. Egyptian military power Removed the Saudi clan from Mecca & Medina Involved in Greek War for independence Attacked Anatolia -Withdraw after European British navy became involved Family of Ali ruled Egypt until 1952
I. The Ottoman Empire B. Ottoman Reform & the European Model, 1807- 1853 1.First attempt at reform Sultan Selim III (r.1789-1807) Attempted to reform military, centralize power, standardize taxes Failed due to resistance by Janissaries and ulama Failed reforms led to military uprising Selim was jailed & executed in 1807
I. The Ottoman Empire 2. Reform reconsidered Sultan Mahmud (r.1808-1839) saw that empire was backward & weakening -Success of Ali in Egypt -Greek independence in 1829 Created new artillery unit in 1826 Janissaries revolted Artillery unit bombarded Janissary barracks Janissary corps dissolved
I. The Ottoman Empire 3. Tanzimat Reorganization -Public trials -Equality before the law -Conscription into the army (regardless of religion) -Ended tax farming -New law codes modeled on European, no Shari’a law
I. The Ottoman Empire C. The Crimean War & Its Aftermath, 1853-1877 1.Conflict with Russia Russia wanted access to the Black Sea -Free access to Mediterranean -Expanded south at the expense of the Ottomans Russia claimed to be protector of all Orthodox citizens in the Ottoman Empire
I. The Ottoman Empire 2. The Crimean War Began as dispute over access to churches in Jerusalem Russia invaded the Balkans Britain, France & Kingdom of Sardinia & Piedmont allied with Ottomans War fought in Romania, on the Black Sea and Crimean Peninsula
I. The Ottoman Empire 3. Effects of the War Russian expansion to the south blocked Tsar weakened First time propaganda used to generate support for war -England and France Transition to modern warfare -High casualties -Breech loading rifle -End of the significance of cavalry forces
I. The Ottoman Empire 4.Problems associated with the reforms Dependence on foreign loans Trade deficit Inflation. In the 1860s and 1870s, discussion of a law that would have permitted all men to vote -Muslims worried that the Ottoman Empire was no longer a Muslim society. -contributed to Muslim hostilities against Christians in the Ottoman territories
I. The Ottoman Empire 5.The decline of Ottoman power and wealth Young Ottomans Goals -a group of educated urban men -Constitutionalism -liberal reform -creation of a Turkish national state A constitution was granted in 1876 a coup soon placed a more conservative ruler on the throne the Ottoman Empire continued its weakened existence under the sponsorship of the Western powers until 1922.
II. Russia A.Russia and Europe 1.Lack of Development In 1700, only 3% of the Russian population lived in cities Russia was slow to acquire a modern infrastructure and technology Russia aspired to Western-style economic development -fear of political change prevented real progress.
II. Russia 2. Direction Westernizers & Slavophiles debated the proper course for Russian development. Westernizers put faith in technology and reform Slavophiles considered Orthodox faith, rule of the tsar and peasant life the basis of Russian Civilization Pan-Slavism – all Slavic people should live under Russian rule
II. Russia 3. Diplomacy Russia included amongst great powers of Europe Russophobia -Russia seen as a threat -Despised for subjugation of the serfs -Crimean War damage relations between Russia, the Ottomans and Europe
II. Russia B. Russia and Asia 1.Expansion Russian military superior to Asian counterparts Russia expanded to the Pacific -Established port of Vladivostok in 1860 Expanded to Central Asia -Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkestan Expanded into Caucasus Mountains -Georgia (1786), Azerbaijan (1801), Armenia (1813)
II. Russia 2. Effects of Expansion Increased conflict with China, Japan, Iran & Ottomans Britain took steps to halt Russian expansion in Central Asia. -Afghanistan and Iran
II. Russia C. Cultural Trends 1.European Influence Contact with Europe since time of Peter the Great (r. 1689-1725) Western reforms met a more receptive audience than in the Ottoman Empire Russia’s governmental reforms were largely ineffective
II. Russia 2. Opposition to Reform Opposition to reform came from wealthy families feared reform would bring about imperial despotism -realized during the reign of Nicholas I.
II. Russia 3.The Decemberist Revolt Carried out by a group of reform-minded military officers -after the death of Alexander I in 1825 Their defeat amounted to the defeat of reform for the next three decades.
II. Russia 4. Reforms of Tsar Alexander II Emancipation of the serfs in 1861 Creation of joint-stock companies Railroad network Modernized legal system
II. Russia 5. Effects of Reforms The 19 th century saw numerous Russian scholarly and scientific achievements emergence of significant Russian writers and thinkers. -Feodor Dostoyevsky -Leo Tolstoy
III. The Qing Empire A.Economic and Social Disorder, 1800–1839 1.Effects of Population Growth Chinese population doubled between 1650- 1800. Population pressure was causing environmental damage Large population of unemployed & homeless farmers, laborers, and merchants.
III. The Qing Empire 2. Discontent Minority peoples had been driven off their land Government seen as being weak & corrupt Influence of foreign merchants and missionaries in Canton and Macao. Discontent was manifest in a series of internal rebellions in the 19 th century -White Lotus rebellion (1794–1804).
III. The Qing Empire B.The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839–1850 1.Opium Trade British wanted Chinese tea China refused to open to British trade British grew opium in India Sold to Chinese Used proceeds (silver) to promote British industrialization
III. The Qing Empire 2. Qing Response Opium trade first outlawed in 1729 -Smuggling continued Opium addiction spread to all levels of Chinese society In 1839, ruled to outlaw use and importation of Opium Opium War 1839-1842
III. The Qing Empire 3. The War Qing military was obsolete Qing Bannerman were no match for British troops -Most fought with swords, knives, spears and clubs Qing had no imperial navy
III. The Qing Empire 4. Aftermath Treaty of Nanking ended the war -Dismantled the Canton System -Five treaty ports opened to British trade -Hong Kong became a British colony -British residents given extraterritorial rights -Qing to pay indemnity of 21 million ounces of silver for starting the war -Britain gained most-favored –nation trading status
III. The Qing Empire 5. European Domination 1860, opium trade legalized By 1900, 90 treaty ports Russia, France, Germany, & Great Britain carved out spheres of influence in China -an area where an outside nation exerts special economic or political control Increased European domination of China led to anti-foreigner sentiment
III. The Qing Empire C. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864 1.Causes Social unrest -Ethnic divisions -Economic hardships Foreign intrusion
III. The Qing Empire 2. Hong Xiuquan man of humble Hakka background became familiar with the teachings of Christian missionaries in Canton. Hong declared himself to be the younger brother of Jesus founded a religious group (the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace or Taiping movement) -goal to drive the Manchu (Qing) out of China -recruited followers from among the Hakka people.
III. The Qing Empire 3. Rebellion The Taiping forces defeated imperial troops in Guangxi recruited (or forced) villagers into their segregated male and female battalions and work teams conquered toward eastern and northern China. In 1853, the Taiping forces captured Nanjing and made it their capital
III. The Qing Empire 4. Defeat Provincial governors provided military support for the Qing Received British and French military support Rebellion defeated by 1864
III. The Qing Empire 5. Results One of the world’s bloodiest civil wars Greatest armed conflict before the 20 th century. 20 - 30 million deaths -Starvation & disease depopulation and destruction of rich agricultural lands in central and eastern China suffering and destruction in the cities and cultural centers of eastern China.
III. The Qing Empire D.Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864–1875 1.Debt Costs of wars Devastation of productive farmland The burden of indemnities payable to Western governments
III. The Qing Empire 2.Decline British, French and Americans became heavily involved in Chinese affairs -customs service, military and industrial advisors Provincial governors gained autonomy at expense of emperors -Power of taxation, legislation & military command
Read: Chinese Responses to Imperialism Pages 701-702 Answer #1-3