Presentation on theme: " Introduction to R2P Historical context ICISS & Canadian leadership 2005 World Summit Outcome &R2P The Three Pillar Approach The Libyan case."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to R2P Historical context ICISS & Canadian leadership 2005 World Summit Outcome &R2P The Three Pillar Approach The Libyan case RwP & The role of emerging powers The Syrian case Moving forward on R2P: Challenges ahead Canadian Centre for R2P Inter-Parliamentary Union & R2P Resolution
R2P or RtoP; a humanitarian principle coined in 2001 & later adopted by 150 countries at the 2005 World Summit when sovereign states are unable or unwilling to fulfill their responsibility to protect their own populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, the international community has the responsibility to protect populations at risk.
Post- Cold War era and the outbreak of new conflicts in the 1990s “Humanitarian intervention” became the new buzzword Controversies when it took place (Somalia, Bosnia, and Kosovo) and when it failed to take place (Rwanda).
Responding to the then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s call to build a new global consensus for protecting people in peril… Canadian leadership with the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). Report on the Responsibility to Protect in December 2001
GOALS OF THE ICISS: 1) Change the conceptual language from humanitarian intervention to responsibility to protect 2) Pin the responsibility on state authorities at the national and at the international level 3) Ensure that interventions are carried out in a proper manner. the responsibility to react to protect populations from grievous harm, to prevent such situations, and to rebuild in their aftermath.
In IR: normative and conceptual shift from a Westphalian notion of absolute sovereignty to “sovereignty as a responsibility” Canadian leadership with the ICICSS & our long-standing tradition in global humanitarianism Canada as a “norm entrepreneur” for giving birth to R2P
Paragraphs 138-139 150 heads of state Genocide War crimes Crimes against humanity Ethnic cleansing PREVENTION & DIPLOMACY INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY & Chapter 7 ‘collective use of force’
12 January 2009, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issued a report entitled Implementing the Responsibility to Protect Three Pillar Approach - protection responsibilities of the state, the international assistance and capacity- building & timely and decisive response. These pillars are to be employed simultaneously as needed
Resolution 1970 – Libya’s R2P Security Council Resolution 1973 on Libya (approving a no-fly-zone, calling for an immediate cease-fire and tightening sanctions on the Muammar Qaddafi regime in Libya) Selective nature of intervention & regime change
RWP, first articulated in the fall of 2011 - Monitor and improve SC’s sanctioned use of force; - The sequencing of R2P's three pillars; - Need to exhaust all peaceful means before considering the use of force.
Crimes against humanity Cluster bombs Refugees/IDPs International Humanitarian Law & HR Law International Criminal Law Canada refused to join call on the UN Security Council to refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Conceptual & institutional challenges Issues of selectivity & consistency UN Security Council - Veto Power Danger of “unintended consequences” Canadian ideals and inspirations on the world stage ? Changing trends in the last while… National R2P Focal Points, partnerships, Media & Education
Based at Munk School of Global Affairs, U of T A non-profit, non-partisan research institute Promotes scholarly engagement & political implementation of R2P Over 50 undergraduate and graduate analysts Research divisions in English & French (parliamentary, civil society, media) Graduate legal research division composed of students from the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto Trace Canadian government’s policies on R2P Serve as a hub of information, research and analyses on R2P To provide a forum for discussion and debates on R2P R2Plive.org
Some upcoming projects at the CCR2P: 1) Press Conference in Ottawa: May 7 th 2013 2) R2P Action Plan for Canada & National Focal Pt 3) “Canadian Voices on R2P” Publication Project 4) Essay Contest on R2P 5) Youtube channel & R2P video production 6) 20 th Anniversary of Rwandan Genocide : HR Aw areness campaign in collaboration with the Gl obal Centre for R2P (New York) 7) “R2P Education Kit” – public education efforts 8) Annual conference & Public Debate on R2P
6 Continents, 27 Countries 62 Different Sources All UN languages covered Viewership from 82 countries Follow us on Twitter & Facebook!
The IPU is the international organization of Parliaments established in 1889. The Union serves as the focal point for worldwide parliamentary dialogue and works for peace and co-operation among peoples and for the firm establishment of representative democracy. Enforcing the R2P: The Role of Parliament in Safeguarding Civilians’ Lives, was moderated by Mr. S.H. Chowdury (President of the IPU’s First Standing Committee) and included two parliamentarian co-rapporteurs, Mr. L. Ramatlakane (South Africa) and Mr. S. Janquin (France) as well as two experts. Resolution be adopted in Quito, March 2013
Enforcing R2P must be timely, consistent and effective to avoid deadlock on a crisis; Underscoring the importance of combating impunity (Role of ICC); Empowering Media & Civil Society; Prevention is a core aspect of R2P; Early-warning systems at regional levels; Military intervention as a last resort; and Calls on parliaments to take all necessary legislative measures & establish committees.
“Our conception of Responsibility To Protect is narrow but deep…Today, the R2P is a concept, not yet a policy; an aspiration, not yet a reality. But the United Nations was built on ideals and aspirations…” - UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon
Tina J. Park Canadian Centre for the Responsibility to Protect Munk School of Global Affairs 1 Devonshire Place Toronto, ON M5S 3K7 www.ccr2p.org Tina.Park@utoronto.ca