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International Security and Peace WWII Prof. Jaechun Kim.

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1 International Security and Peace WWII Prof. Jaechun Kim

2 WWII in context  About 60 million people were dead  Truly world wide war  National Policies and Ideas  Germany practiced creative history during Weimar republic! practiced creative history during Weimar republic! They started the WWI… we lost the war because of Jews and Socialists… war outcome was not properly evaluated.. They started the WWI… we lost the war because of Jews and Socialists… war outcome was not properly evaluated.. Versailles treaty were too harsh  Lebensraum; We need a bigger empire! Versailles treaty were too harsh  Lebensraum; We need a bigger empire! Rise of Hitler (44% of popular votes); G need a bigger empire! Rise of Hitler (44% of popular votes); G need a bigger empire!  Japan Militarism appears in Japan.. Dominate foreign policies and national ideas.. Japan is insecure… need an empire… Militarism appears in Japan.. Dominate foreign policies and national ideas.. Japan is insecure… need an empire… A sugar-coated self image – empire is good for Asians! A sugar-coated self image – empire is good for Asians!

3  Italy Rise of Mussolini Rise of Mussolini  Britain and France weakened by WWI… Britain became isolationist and appeased Germany… weakened by WWI… Britain became isolationist and appeased Germany…  Russia Bolshevik Revolution (1917) & Aftermath Bolshevik Revolution (1917) & Aftermath Petersburg  Moscow Petersburg  Moscow Indifferent to Nazis Germany… even helped them to annex territories in E. Europe Indifferent to Nazis Germany… even helped them to annex territories in E. Europe  How the Storm Gathered  Peace seemed to be prevailing…  Non-aggression pact at Locarno in 1925  Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact in 1928  World-wide economic depression – 1929  As the depression spreads, the treaty began break down…  Hitler comes into power in Announced that he’d reject all the military limitations of V treaty…

4  Hitler’s recoveries & conquests  Remilitarizing the Rhineland (industrial heartland of G) 1936  opening door for the war…  Austria 1938 – assassination of Chancellor Dollfuss  Czech demanded Sudentenland, and then more  Munich conference  “Munich Pact”  The rest of Czech *Emil Hacha..  Poland next – 1939 (Sept. 1) w/o declaring war…  Far East  Japan invaded Taiwan (1895), Korea(1905), Manchuria, and China…  The US wanted neutrality until late 1930s…  Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7 th 1941)  The US declared war on Dec 8 th. G and Italy declared war on the US…

5 Origins (Causes) of WWII  Hitler blaming view – racial Darwinism and Lebensraum… cf. AJP Taylor, Origins of the Second World War - Hitler didn’t have time table for conquest… for general war… cf. AJP Taylor, Origins of the Second World War - Hitler didn’t have time table for conquest… for general war…  3rd level explanation to the outbreak of WWII  K. Waltz and BOP theory  Problems in multi-polar system  Chain-ganging  Buck-passing  Why is bipolar system stable compared to multi-polar system?  Neither chain ganging nor buck passing…

6  Chain ganging and buck passing and advantage of offense and defense  Cult of defensive and WWII  Before WWII states believed that defense had the advantage… historical learning.. wrong analogy!!!  Military-fueled cult of offensive vs. civilian-based cult of defensive  WWI – result of spiral process in which alliance dynamics magnified the local disputes, turning them into global issue  WWII – deterrence failure in which buck-passing diplomacy by the status quo powers encouraged expansionist powers to risk aggression

7 German strategies for WWI and WWII compared  Strategy for Decisive Victory (“S” Plan)  Strategy of Piecemeal Expansion  Strategy of limited liability and buck passing of Russia, France, and Britain..  Soviet Union : Stalin – “Soviet Union would not willing to pull others’ chestnuts out of the fire”; Stalin to Khrushcheve after France collapsed – “Couldn’t they (French) put up any resistance at all?”  France : Let’s pass the cost to Brits!  Britain : strategy of limited liability; Chamberlain thought that French defenses were strong enough to deter Hitler..

8  What do you think of this line of analysis?  Churchill: “There was never a war in all history easier to prevent by timely action than the one which has just desolated such great areas of the globe.” Hitler’s gamble was based on the lack of will on the part of Allies…  2 nd level explanation: regime type and aggressiveness?  Nature of the societies explain belligerence and atrocities  Nature of the societies explain belligerence and atrocities

9 Intentional Killing of Civilians during the WWII  During WWI - about 10 million people have died, but only 5 percent of deaths were civilians.  During WWII - about 60 million people have killed, but 70 percent of those deaths were civilians.  25 percent by Holocaust; the rest by intentional targeting of civilians during warfare

10  Mass killing of innocent people was not unique to WWII  But the WWII was the worst… Why?  Technological factors  Psychological factors  Evacuation to the east  deportation to death camps  deportation to death camps  Special action  killing  killing  Dehousing  destruction of housing and occupants of villages  destruction of housing and occupants of villages  Collateral damage  killing of civilians

11  How did the Allies begin strategic bombing?  Japan and Germany began indiscriminate killing of civilians first…  Japan Rape of Nanking (1937) – killed 350,000 civilians. raped 80,000 women Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking… Rape of Nanking (1937) – killed 350,000 civilians. raped 80,000 women Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking… Maruta - experiments on humans for chemical and biological warfare Maruta - experiments on humans for chemical and biological warfare Rape of Manila – 700,000 civilians were killed Rape of Manila – 700,000 civilians were killed Comfort women (Sex slaves) Comfort women (Sex slaves) killed 7-11 million people killed 7-11 million people  Germany – Holocaust 6 million Jews killed… 6 million Jews killed…

12 Strategic Bombing by Allies  Britain  Initial restraint – deliberately avoided civilian targets  Erosion of restraint as Churchill comes in  The objective - targeting the moral forces of the German people  Churchill’s chief advisor told Churchill: “Investigation seems to show that having one’s house demolished is most damaging to morale. People seem to mind it more than having their friends or even relatives killed. Now success in the war became measured by the number of acres of civilian housing and urban area destroyed.”

13  Operation Gomorrah (Firebombing of Hamburg in 1944) “The whole of Hamburg was on fire from one end to the other. Temperatures in the city on the ground reached 1400 degrees. Firestorm created a tornado of fire. Babies were torn from mothers’ arms by the high winds and sucked into the conflagration. In the basement air-raid shelter, we found nothing but bones suspended in congealed fat. Women and children were so charred as to be unrecognizable. Small children lay like fried eels on the pavement.” - 50,000 died “The whole of Hamburg was on fire from one end to the other. Temperatures in the city on the ground reached 1400 degrees. Firestorm created a tornado of fire. Babies were torn from mothers’ arms by the high winds and sucked into the conflagration. In the basement air-raid shelter, we found nothing but bones suspended in congealed fat. Women and children were so charred as to be unrecognizable. Small children lay like fried eels on the pavement.” - 50,000 died  Bombing of Dresden (February 1945) -150,000 killed  Bombing of Berlin (February 1945) - 27,000 killed  Revulsion after the war Churchill didn’t authorize medals for the bomb crews.. Churchill didn’t authorize medals for the bomb crews..

14  US  Initial restraint to Germany; daylight precision bombing of military and industrial targets…  Toward the end of war, they shifted to firebombing of civilians  Kill morale of Germany and teach them a lesson… - - FDR: “We’ve got to be tough on Germany, and I mean the German people not just the Nazis. We either have to castrate the German people or you have got to treat them in such a manner so they can’t just go on reproducing people who want to continue the way they have in the past.”  By spring of 1945, 50 largest cities in Germany had all been destroyed!

15  Initial policy towards Japan was different  General Marshall (before Pearl Harbor): “We will fight mercilessly. Flying fortresses will be dispatched immediately to set the paper cities of Japan on fire. There won’t be any hesitation about bombing civilians. It will be all-out.” “We will fight mercilessly. Flying fortresses will be dispatched immediately to set the paper cities of Japan on fire. There won’t be any hesitation about bombing civilians. It will be all-out.”  Air commander Hansel was replaced by Curtis LeMay..  The Big Test : Tokyo, March 9-10 (1945) mostly targeting residential areas mostly targeting residential areas “…so many people burned to death that the smell of burning flesh nauseated the crews flying above… Ground temperature reached 1800 degree F. Estimate is that about 130,000 people got killed in 6 hours” “…so many people burned to death that the smell of burning flesh nauseated the crews flying above… Ground temperature reached 1800 degree F. Estimate is that about 130,000 people got killed in 6 hours”

16  Next, the rest of Japan is targeted.. 85 % of Yokohama; 55 % of Osaka 85 % of Yokohama; 55 % of Osaka  Official Reaction : “the phenomenal success of our new tactics had precipitously salvaged the morale and fighting spirit of our crews by providing a degree of battle success proportionate to the effort expended…”  Gen. Thomas Powell : “the greatest single disaster incurred by any enemy in military history, there were more casualties than in any other single military action in the history of the world…”

17  Similarities and differences between strategic bombing and the holocaust?  calculated indiscriminate slaughter of masses of defenseless humans  Both were national security policies  Killers were normal people…  Then, what were the differences?

18 Conceptual Framework : Factors which facilitate mass killing of civilians  Psychological factors - dehumanization of victims; racism racism  In the US, war against Japanese was a war about race. One newspaper editorial: “Japanese Americans, being of a different race, posed a serious threat that would continue until they are wiped off the face of the map.” One newspaper editorial: “Japanese Americans, being of a different race, posed a serious threat that would continue until they are wiped off the face of the map.”

19 Admiral Halsey, Commander of the US South Pacific Force: “Fighting Japs is not like fighting normal human beings. We are not dealing with humans as we know them. We are dealing with something primitive. Our troops have the right view of the Japs. We regard them as vermin.” Admiral Halsey, Commander of the US South Pacific Force: “Fighting Japs is not like fighting normal human beings. We are not dealing with humans as we know them. We are dealing with something primitive. Our troops have the right view of the Japs. We regard them as vermin.” Truman : “I think one man is as good as another so long as he’s honest and decent and not a nigger or a Chinaman. Uncle Will says that the Lord made a white man of dust, a nigger from mud, then threw up what was left and it came down a Chinaman. He does hate Chinese and Japs. So do I. It is race prejudice, I guess. But I am strongly of the opinion that Negroes ought to live in Africa, yellow men in Asia, and white men in Europe and America.” Truman : “I think one man is as good as another so long as he’s honest and decent and not a nigger or a Chinaman. Uncle Will says that the Lord made a white man of dust, a nigger from mud, then threw up what was left and it came down a Chinaman. He does hate Chinese and Japs. So do I. It is race prejudice, I guess. But I am strongly of the opinion that Negroes ought to live in Africa, yellow men in Asia, and white men in Europe and America.”

20  Bureaucratization (Compartmentalization) of killing: division of labor and organizational loyalty  no guilty feeling … bureaucracy breaks down complex tasks into smaller simpler ones…  Technological factors  Technical distancing  What’s the difference between strategic bombing and dropping of nuclear bombs?  Level of destruction is about the same (Hiroshima and Nagasaki could have been destroyed by 2.1 kilotons of conventional bombs..)  “A” bomb - a different way of delivering the same results  Two differences: Time involved and radiation poisoning  The A bomb was nothing more than strategic bombing made easy!

21  Then what caused the Japanese to quit?  Was it the A bomb? Japanese seemed to have surrendered because of military vulnerability, not because of civilian vulnerability… Japanese seemed to have surrendered because of military vulnerability, not because of civilian vulnerability… Allies already reached culminating point of victory before dropping of A bombs… Allies already reached culminating point of victory before dropping of A bombs…  Then why did the US drop the A bombs?  Can the intentional killing of civilians be justified in terms of means to achieve political goals – unconditional surrender of enemies?

22 COLD WAR  What was the Cold War?  Big Time Competition  BAD  GOOD? Recovery of Europe and Japan Recovery of Europe and Japan NATO and other cooperative international institutions NATO and other cooperative international institutions  Ideological competition - all encompassing ideological gloss put on all aspects of the competitions  Zero sum nature – Security Dilemma

23  Life of the Cold War  Nuclear arms race was perhaps the most stable area of cold war competition  Standoff in Europe was almost as stable and peaceful as the nuclear arms race  Competition in the Third World, most unstable  Origins of the Cold War: Who (what) caused the Cold War?

24  Prevailing western view: Soviet blaming view (Gaddis)  Revisionist view  Ideological explanation  Spiral model (International Systemic Explanation – Security Dilemma)  Psychological model (1 st level of analysis)  Misperceptions  Wrong (?) historical analogy  State level explanation – too deterministic??

25  Development of US strategic thinking (late 1940s and early 1950s)  Hungary (1947)  Czech coup (1948)  Berlin Blockade in 1948  Blockade led the NSC to write NSC-9  Preventive War Thinking in the US in the late 1940s and the early 1950s ! e.g. Bertrand Russell, Bernard Brodie, George Kennan e.g. Bertrand Russell, Bernard Brodie, George Kennan  Nuclear monopoly  The loss of nuclear monopoly and NSC 68

26  NSC 68 Paul Nitze, George Kennan’s successor as head of the State Dept’s Policy Planning Staff ; Dean Acheson Paul Nitze, George Kennan’s successor as head of the State Dept’s Policy Planning Staff ; Dean Acheson not a defensive-minded, status quo-oriented document not a defensive-minded, status quo-oriented document They could overrun WU; move on the oil bearing areas of ME; consolidate communist gains in Far East; launch air attack on British Isles; attack selected target with nuclear weapons including Canada and the US They could overrun WU; move on the oil bearing areas of ME; consolidate communist gains in Far East; launch air attack on British Isles; attack selected target with nuclear weapons including Canada and the US No distinction between vital and peripheral interests No distinction between vital and peripheral interests Domino Theory… Domino Theory… But US Congress was still in isolationist mode But US Congress was still in isolationist mode But Korean War changes everything But Korean War changes everything US defense spending rose from 30% of budget to 60%, from 5% of GDP to 18%. US defense spending rose from 30% of budget to 60%, from 5% of GDP to 18%.

27  What ended the Cold War? Power politics vs. Liberalism view Power politics vs. Liberalism view  Reagan victory school  The role of Gorvy …


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