Presentation on theme: "The Holocaust Approximately 6 million Jews killed."— Presentation transcript:
The Holocaust Approximately 6 million Jews killed
LEARNING GOAL I will learn the atrocities committed by German soldiers during the Holocaust
WARNING This PowerPoint contains some graphic photos and information regarding the historical event known as the Holocaust. Please let a teacher know if you become uncomfortable during the presentation.
Shown: Group of women and children being led from a Jewish ghetto to a concentration camp. Jews were sent to ghettos – sealed off areas- in the 1930s Jews tried to preserve some normalcy – conducted educational classes, held musical and dramatic performances, planted gardens on rooftops
Horrors of Concentration Camps First set up for political enemies Large numbers of Jews were sent after Kristallnacht in 1938 Major concentration camps were constructed in Poland, Austria, France, and Germany Prisoner-of-war camps, forced labor camps, concentration camps, and mass-extermination camps were an integral part of Hitler’s efforts to control and terrorize the population of Europe.
Horrors of the Camps Prisoners were starved, tortured, worked to death, and in most cases, murdered. In some camps, prisoners were subject to inhumane medical experiments by Nazi doctors like Josef Mengele, who was notorious for his human experiments. Killings occurred in all of the camps to some degree, but some camps, such as the infamous Auschwitz-Birkenau, were specifically designed for mass killings of hundreds of thousands of people
Jewish man subjected to icy water. Experimenting on how long term exposure to cold water affects pilots.
Josef Mengele Entrance to Auschwitz Auschwitz Survivors Women in the Barracks at Auschwitz
Horrors of the Camps Upon exiting the railway car when they arrived, SS physicians would quickly examine new prisoners and, with a wave of their hand, determine who would work for a while and who would die immediately. Many families were broken up at this point, as young children were usually sent to death right away because they could not work
Horrors of the Camp Belongings were seized Purposely deprived of necessities so many died while working All prisoners were susceptible to suffer torture or death for any offense Chronic hunger, disease, and unsanitary living conditions led to complete physical exhaustion
Hitler’s reference to the “Jewish problem” The “Final Solution” was the extermination of all Jewish people The only way to restore Germany’s purity and greatness The Nazis began a new system when they invaded Russia, which had a high Jewish population Any undesirable (Jew, Soviet official, Gypsy, disabled) would be rounded up and executed by mass shootings and buried in mass unmarked graves Some groups as large as 500 people
The Systemization of Killing Found mass shooting insufficient Constructed death camps where gas would be the primary means of execution Jews from Germany and Western Europe were lied to in order to get them on the train to Eastern Europe where they would arrive to be worked to death or immediately killed
Gas Chambers Prisoners were told that it was a bath house Prisoners were even given towels and bars of soap Once locked inside, a pesticide gas, Cyclon B, was used to asphyxiate them. The bodies were then burned and their ashes scattered so that determining the number of deaths would be impossible
Gas chamber at Auschwitz Some gas chambers could hold 3,000 people at a time
Jewish children at Auschwitz celebrating Liberation
Liberation From late 1944 to 1945, camp by camp was liberated by Allied forces The entire world saw, for the first time, the half-starved skeletons and piles of dead bodies Remains of bodies were left in the ovens
World War II Aftermath The Nuremberg Trials, the United Nations, and Israel
The Nuremberg Trials Trials were part of the American-British-Soviet aim to establish an overall record of what happened during the war, to reestablish the rules of international conduct, and to punish individual Nazis who were guilty of crimes Many Nazi records captured, such as the minutes of the meeting in which the “Final Solution” was worked out. Films and photographs of the atrocities Of the 22 tried, 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life in prison, 4 to lesser terms, and 3 were acquitted.
Yalta Conference February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in Yalta in the Soviet Union To appease Stalin, Roosevelt agreed to divide Germany into military-controlled zones – 4 zones: French, British, American, and Soviet
Israel In 1947, the UN Partition Plan gave some territory in the Palestine area to the Jewish people In 1948, after the plan was accepted, Arab armies, who did not agree, tried to take back the territory – deemed Israel’s War of Independence Source: www.state.gov
United Nations Purposes – Maintain international peace and security – Develop friendly relations among nations – Cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems – Promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms – 192 Member States
History of the UN In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories.