Presentation on theme: "The Aftermath of the French & Indian War HTAV VCE Unit 3."— Presentation transcript:
The Aftermath of the French & Indian War HTAV VCE Unit 3
Washington: An English Gentleman Born in 1732 and raised in Virginia Virginian elite whose family looked to the mother country Premature death of his father prevented George from following his brothers to the Appleby School in England Educated at the hands of a Church of England clergyman at a school near Fredericksburg Early talk of securing a post as a Midshipman in the Britain’s Royal Navy when turned 15 Appointed as official surveyor for Culpeper County- became successful land speculator
Washington: Soldier Washington was commissioned into the Virginia Militia as a major 1753- at same time he joined the Freemasons “I can never look upon that Proclamation in any other light (but this I say between ourselves) than as a temporary expedient to quiet the Minds of the Indians” Letter to William Crawford Served with Braddock’s Expedition Throughout the French & Indian war he continuously applied and was rejected for a commission in the British Army
Albany Plan 1754 ‘Salutary Neglect’ (Robert Walpole) had given the colonies self-rule- ‘internal sovereignty’; in a way they became a series of independent republics Albany Plan debated in 1754 at Albany Congress to unite as a ‘union’ for defence Further, each colony possessed their own colonial assembly (land ownership common therefore widespread enfranchise), judiciary, taxes, trade control and defence force (militia) Effectively through the geographic, physical and political reality of self-rule and the widespread reading of Enlightenment and Classical literature they fostered the ideals of republicanism
The French & Indian War 1753 French troops from Canada march south; seize and fortify the Ohio Valley to assert their claim and to shield the Native American population from increasing British influence. France had long claimed the entire Mississippi River valley, which was disputed by Britain Britain protests the ‘invasion’ and claims Ohio for itself. 1754 Ensign de Jumonville is notoriously killed by Native American Mingo ally Tanacharison, ‘half king’, "Tu n'es pas encore mort, mon père!" (Thou art not yet dead, my father), when taken prisoner and a third of his escort is killed by a British patrol led by George Washington. In retaliation the French and the Indians defeat the British at Fort Necessity. Washington surrenders after losing one-third of his force; forced to sign humiliating terms in French (which he can’t read, write or speak) 1755 The British implement a plan to defeat the French. British Lieutenant Colonel Moncton successfully captures Fort Beausejour Major General Edward Braddock troops are defeated in the Battle of the Monongahela; Washington present performs well; French commander Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu famously leads native, Canadien militia and French troops wear native American war paint and regalia William Johnson’s troops stop the French advance at Lake George.
The Seven Years War 1756 The Seven Years’ War begins as Great Britain declares war on France expanding the North American conflict globally into Europe, Africa, Asia and South America 1757 The French led by General Montcalm capture Fort William Henry Following the surrender, Montcalm’s actions angers his Algonquian allies who capture or kill hundreds of unarmed British. 1758 William Pitt implements cooperative policies toward colonial legislatures to receive more colonial support for the war, the Treaty of Easton is signed with the Six Nations (Iroquois Confederation) The British take control of the Forks of the Ohio.
The Seven Years War 1759 French surrender Quebec after British General Wolfe’s famous victory outside the city on the Plains of Abraham (pictured) 1760 The British capture Montreal ending the conflict in North America. 1763 February 10: The Treaty of Paris ends the war between Britain and France. April: Ottawa Chief Pontiac unites many American Indian nations in an effort to drive British off their land. Colonel Henry Bouquet leads the British army and defeats Native American forces at Bushy Run. October 7: King George III signs the Proclamation of 1763 reserving land west of the Allegheny Mountains for Indians.
Ending ‘Salutary Neglect’ Ends ‘Salutary Neglect’; British see Navigation Act (1651) & Molasses Act 1733 flouted; they are now present in colonies after 150 years- enforce with ‘Writs of Assistance’ Writs of Assistance Case 1761; James Otis argues ‘No taxation without Representation’ in court; observing John Adams quipped ‘There the child independence was born’ Treaty of Paris 1763, formally ended war, gave French lands west of the Appalachians to Britain, including: Quebec and Ohio River Valley British debt 133 million pounds Nearly impossible to tax Britain; food riots throughout 1750s- rising costs of staples- the ‘Moral Economy’
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 Result of British policies including: treatment of natives as a conquered people, settlement expansion (lost lands), cutting back of gifts Caused a shift in British policy to satisfy natives 7500- 10000 British Troops stationed in colonies- mostly frontier forts
Proclamation Line 1763 Result of French-Indian War, Pontiac’s Rebellion and economic circumstances Restricted settlement beyond Appalachians (literally ‘drew’ a line the colonists weren’t legally allowed to cross, many ignored it) Angered colonists who felt they had fought to win this land from French Affected poor people who wanted to take up cheap but fertile land in Ohio River valley, wealthy people (Washington and Franklin) wanted to speculate on land and turn a profit
Revenue & Currency Acts 1764 Reinstitution of mercantilist policy, lowered duty to make tax collectable Revising of the Molasses Act 1733, new powers given to custom officers By passed Colonial Assemblies thus seen to violate colonists rights, famous catch cry ‘no taxation without representation.’ Established merchant class of New England as a pillar of opposition Set precedent in terms of opposition Currency Act 1764- must pay British tax in specie (gold) not paper money- lack of specie in colonies
Stamp Act 1765 Passed to raise £60 000 to supply Brit troops in America, Parliamentarian believed funding should be sourced from colonies First tax that created widespread opposition as targeted all social classes, taxing everything from playing cards to legal documents Led to emergence of opposition groups: Sons of Liberty Inter-colonial cooperation through Stamp Act Congress Patrick Henry’s ‘Virginia Resolves,’ colonists ‘entitled to all liberties, privileges and immunities’ of freeborn Englishmen
Quartering Act 1765 Act passed to quarter the British troops left in American after French-Indian War Brought up resentment for standing armies: no army before war why one now 1500 troops arrived in New York in 1766 Assembly refused to comply with Act and so was suspended in 1767 and 1769 Widespread colonial fears- standing armies
Declaratory Act 1766 Asserted Parliament’s right to ‘make laws... to bind the colonies and people of America... in all cases whatsoever.’ Answers James’ Otis assertion that there is a flaw in the British Constitution- colonists are ‘Virtually Represented’ Unitary Nature of the British Empire- make the world Britain English landed gentry (model citizen) can represent anyone throughout Empire Manifestation of mercantilism, gave pretence for taxation Save face with the repealing of the Stamp Act Colonial outrage follows; John Adams ‘We won’t be their Negroes ’
Political Ideology- Neo Whig View ‘Standing Army prelude to Tyranny’ Trenched & Gordon- Widely read in colonies- British opposition writers, 1720-30s John Locke- 2 nd Treatise on Government- ‘Natural Rights’ impinged: Liberty- British governments enforcing rule: ‘Writs of Assistance’; Revenue & Currency Acts 1764; Stamp & Quartering Act 1765; Declaratory Act 1766 Property- Proclamation Act 1763, Revenue Act 1764, Stamp Act 1765