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World War I and the Aftermath Chapter 28. I. Introduction 1 st modernized war Old tactics met new technology producing mass slaughter! 1 st war in which.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I and the Aftermath Chapter 28. I. Introduction 1 st modernized war Old tactics met new technology producing mass slaughter! 1 st war in which."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I and the Aftermath Chapter 28

2 I. Introduction 1 st modernized war Old tactics met new technology producing mass slaughter! 1 st war in which airplane was used Other new technology: machine gun, tank, chemical warfare, submarine Global warfare Result of imperialism Extensive alliances (MANIA) Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire

3 II. The War and Before Imperialism led to conflict over territory Arms build ups with extensive mobilization plans Jingoism- extreme militaristic nationalism Balkans were consistently a problem Diverse, Slavic region Serbia was free of Ottoman control and resistant to Austria-Hungary’s control Archduke Ferdinand and his Wife went on a trip to Serbia Gavriel Princip assassinated both of them

4 II. The War and Before Balkans (continued) Austria-Hungary sought to punish Serbia Russia vowed to back up their fellow Slavs Brings in all of the Alliances The War Plan Germany had a 2 front war Schlieffen Plan- Quickly overwhelm France and Britain and move on to Russia while they are still trying to mobilize Didn’t work- led to a stalemate

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6 II. The War and Before Warfare Millions died with little or no progress Entente- Dead 5,712,379 Wounded 12,809,280 Central – Dead 4,010,241 Wounded 8,419,533 New Weapons caused high casualties- Old War Tactics Diseases caused high casualties Gallipoli Tried to open supply route to Russia Gain control of Constantinople Ironically, a major advocate of plan was Winston Churchill, who at the time was Lord of the Admiralty

7 II. The War and Before Russia High number of casualties Aristocratic officers Poorly trained peasants Lack of coding in communications Nicholas II tried to take control of army He gets blamed Had to bail on Entente due to uprisings at home Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918

8 II. The War and Before Home-fronts Government takes over key industries Shortages of food and fuel Rationing Women in the workforce Women had to do the job of men Suffrage in US Extreme Nationalism Propaganda Citizens were very zealous

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10 II. The War and Before Colonies Fought on the side of their colonial rulers Supplied large amounts of raw materials Japan Allied with Britain to expel Germany from Shangdong Peninsula Became an imperial power themselves East Africa and Ottoman Empire sided with Germans Ottoman Empire fell apart as a result

11 II. The War and Before United States Joins in 1917 Helped break the stalemate Brought into the war after Zimmerman Telegram (other stepping stones, German sub sinks the Lusitania) The End Freed from the Eastern Front, German made a huge advance Turning point- 2 nd Battle of the Marne Tanks Spanish Flu German Surrender (shocked German people, their land was not invaded, occupied, destroyed like France) Armistice Day- Nov 11, 1919 Versailles Conference Germany had no representation

12 III. The Aftermath France (Clemenceau) wanted to punish Germany Take away territory and pay reparations Wilson- Wanted peace and self-determination for people who wanted freedom Wanted League of Nations Did not want to punish Germany League of Nations

13 III. The Aftermath Peace of Paris Germany had no say- Representatives forced German territory broken up Forced to pay reparations- collapsed economy Austria-Hungary split up Ignored Arab nations and promises to them Actually divided their lands rather than help them League of Nations Ignored Japan and its encroachment of Chinese territory US vetoed League of Nations and made separate treaty with Germany- Even though Wilson signed the Treaty of Versailles

14 IV. Colonial Problems Colonies provided huge amounts of resources and personnel during war “lesser humans” being asked to kill Europeans Colonies give more self-governance during war

15 IV. Colonial Problems India Economy was hit hard during/after the war Famines Shortages Broken promise of self-governance Morley-Minto reforms- education and voting rights Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms Gave more power to India’s government Rowlatt Act Limited Indian Civil Rights Mohandas Ghandi Mass nonviolent protest (satyagraha) again colonial rule

16 IV. Colonial Problems Egypt European and Turkish rule angered them Lord Cromer High Commissioner of Egypt Pushed for economic reform Only benefitted wealthy class Poor starving Independence sought by effendi (business/professional class) Brought problems of colonial rule to attention of people Dinshawai incident British accidental shooting of prayer leader’s wife Resulted in riots

17 IV. Colonial Problems Egyptian Revolt of 1919 Result of huge burden on peasants Went without food so soldiers could eat Riots soon appeared across country Britain regain control Wafd Party- formed by Sa’d Zaghul- unified nationalist movement Britain pulls out between Vowed to protect Suez Canal Egypt enters 30 years of chaos

18 IV. Colonial Problems Middle East problems Ottoman Empire divided up after WWI Turkish Republic Latin alphabet, woman suffrage Syria, Lebanon and Iraq were promised independence Occupied by British and French Hussein- sheriff of Mecca Used European help to overthrow Turks Angered fellow Muslims

19 IV. Colonial Problems Palestine Promised to both Zionist and Arabs by Brits Balfour Declaration- Lord Balfour promised Zionist a Jewish homeland Leon Pinsker- Jewish intellectual who said Jewish assimilation impossible Ex. Pogroms Alfred Dreyfus French Jew- accused of being German spy Extreme French discrimination of Jews World Zionist Organization- promoted Jewish migration to Palestine Arabs feel betrayed so Britain pulls back support and then betrays Jews

20 IV. Colonial Problems Africa starts to gain independence Initially educated were loyal to Colonizers Rebellions started after forced labor and food and supply shortages because of war Britain and France back outs on promises Pan-African Organization- United Africa African American led Marcus Garvey and W.E.B DuBois were influential in trying to break up African colonialism

21 V. Conclusion WWI was the war to end all wars but actually first step to WWII Germany felt like they were unfairly punished for the war (Economically and Politically War Guilt Clause) After all, they were not the ones who started the war Gives Hitler a chance to come to power Communism gained a firm hold in Russia Women gained more rights White Supremacy looses hold in colonized holdings


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