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U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 7. Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliance System WORLD WAR I.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 7. Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliance System WORLD WAR I."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 7

2 Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliance System WORLD WAR I

3  Prussia begins uniting all of the German states together. This forced France to give up territory along the border. Germany will form an alliance with Austria-Hungary & Italy to protect themselves from France  Russia took action in fear of Germany signing the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894  All countries will develop their armed forces to use as a tool of diplomacy or to intimidate other countries  Britain will step up their navy & build relations between France & Russia known as entente cordiale (friendly understanding) but will NOT sign a formal agreement SEE MAP PG. 183

4  Ottoman Empire & Austria-Hungary Empire controlled the Balkan Region until nationalism grew throughout Europe causing the Southern Slavs to press for independence. Serbs will gain independence & form the nation of Serbia.  Austria-Hungary will annex Bosnia from Ottoman Empire causing Serbs to realize that Austria-Hungary will never let them be independent

5  Everyone wanted to maintain control of the Balkan Peninsula as it had central access to the Mediterranean Sea  Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria- Hungarian throne, & Sophia, his wife, were visiting Sarajevo when Gavrilo Princip, member of Black Hand (Serbian Nationalist organization) shot them  Serbian officials were aware of this. Austria-Hungary issues ultimatum knowing that they would get support from nations that they had created alliances with (i.e. Germany). Serbia counted on their alliances for support (i.e. Russia)

6  July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilizes to assist Serbia. Germany mobilizes to assist Austria-Hungary  August 3, 1914: Schlieffen Plan is put into motion as Germany invades Belgium & makes their way to France. Britain reacts & gets involved as they had an alliance with Belgium. Germany then turn forces on Russia as well

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8 FranceBritainRussiaUnited States (1917) GermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireItaly (later withdraws) Triple Entente (Allies)Triple Alliance (Central Powers)

9  President Wilson declares the U.S. to be neutral  Many Americans are divided as to whether the U.S. should be involved or not  SEE ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES PG. 187

10  Britain will cut the transatlantic telegraph cable & will use propaganda to influence Americans  Companies in U.S. that have strong ties to Allies & American banks will invest over $2 billion. Midwest banks (pro-German) will loan out $27 million to Germany  U.S. will mobilize for two reasons:  ensure Allied repayment of debts  to prevent Germany from threatening U.S. shipping

11  Britain blockades German ports – armaments first but eventually food/fertilizer. U.S. did not like it as it prevented them from doing business with Germany  Germany responds with U-boats (submarines) sinking every ship off the British coast (Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex).  U.S. warned them not to do this & as Germany did not want U.S. to side with Allies. They would agree but it would not last

12 U.S. Involvement February 1917 – German Kaiser declares unrestricted submarine warfare Sinking of 6 unarmed American merchant ships – February 3 – March 21, 1917 Zimmermann Note – January 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia – March 1917 April 2, 1917 – Wilson asks Congress to declare war

13  U.S. economy will have to shift from producing consumer goods to producing war supplies  Progressives were in control & their ideas will shape the war effort  New agencies will be created to coordinate mobilization, promote efficient use of natural resources, & emphasize cooperation between big business & government

14 War Industries Board (WIB): mass production techniques, set quotas, allocated raw materials, & set prices at whole sale level for war materials. Retail prices will double Food Administration (Herbert Hoover): help increase food production & conserve food. “Clean Plate” ideal. Victory Gardens – growing of vegetables by civilians. Set prices on certain foods Fuel Administration: monitors coal supplies, rationed gas/oil, introduced daylight savings times (Benjamin Franklin), shortened work weeks for civilian goods factories, & “Heatless Mondays” Railroad Administration: controlled ALL aspects of railroads

15  U.S. needed to raise money & convince public to support the war.  A progressive income tax, war-profits tax (Mostly businesses), high excise tax (luxury goods) will be assessed  BONDS: “Liberty Bond” & “Victory Bond” were used to raise money  SEE CHART ON PG. 190

16  National War Labor Board: dealt with strikes – “Work or Fight”; Pushed for an 8-hour day, safety inspections, improvement on wages, unions could exist, enforced child labor ban. In exchange for cooperation, unions agreed to not disrupt war production with strikes or other disturbances. Wages were undermined by rising food & housing costs

17  Women will take jobs of men but did not receive equal pay for equal work. Support for the war would help the suffrage movement  Great Migration: African Americans from Southern cities to the North seeking job opportunities & to escape racial discrimination.  Henry Ford’s company hired African Americans  Mexicans will migrate providing labor for farmers & ranchers. Some found factory jobs in the north Mid-west but faced hostility & discrimination. Formed barrios.

18  Committee on Public Information: propaganda used to convince Americans to support the war  Anti-immigrant hysteria/attacks increased especially against German immigrants or persons of German descent

19  Espionage Act 1917: made it illegal to aid the enemy, give false reports, or to interfere with the war effort  Sedition Act 1918: allowed for the fining or jailing of anyone who interfered with or said anything considered to be disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort  Schenck v. United States 1919: U.S. Supreme Court upheld the acts against Charles Schenck due to the words in his pamphlet were dangerous to others (i.e. yelling fire in a crowded place)

20  Over 2 million will volunteer for war  Selective Service Act May 1917: required men to register in order to be drafted for military service  African Americans: 400k men drafted, 42k served overseas. Segregation still existed. 92 nd & 93 rd Infantry Divisions received praise from Marshal Philippe Petain (France) & General John Pershing (U.S.)  Native Americans: 12k served  Puerto Ricans: 20k served  Mexican Americans – more than any other minority group would serve  Asian Immigrants – fought on side of U.S. prior to being citizens

21  Women were part of the Army Corps of Nurses but had no rank, pay or benefits (eventually will change). Served in Navy & Marines in non-combatant positions  Women filled positions in clerical, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, chemists, & photographers

22 exempt shipyard workers from the draft U.S. Chamber of Commerce did public relations to gain support for shipyard workers – Fabrication techniques – standardized parts built in other places then brought to the shipyard U.S. took control of commercial & private ships Crucial steps needed to move men & supplies

23  Trench Warfare: near the Marne River extending through France to the Belgian coast & as far north as the Swiss Alps.  “No Man’s Land” – area in between the trenches filled with craters, barbed wire, & mines  SEE MAP PG. 195

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26  New Weapons:  Tanks  Airplanes  Portable machine gun  Poison gas  Long-range canons  Anti-aircraft guns  Zeppellin (giant rigid balloons)  New Hazards:  Horrific injuries  Lice  Rats  Polluted water (dysentery)  Inhalation of poison gas  Decaying bodies  “trench foot”  “trench mouth”

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30  Convoy system: proposed by William S. Sims.  Reduction in loss of ships  Reduction in loss of supplies  Ensured arrival of American troops

31  General John J. Pershing leads the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) – “doughboys”.  2 million enter the stalemate in Paris July 4, 1917  March 21, 1918: Germany’s last offensive as they push deep into Allied lines & would get to within 40 miles of Paris

32  AEF went on offensive stopping Germany advance in Cantigny (near Paris). Push the Germans back into Chateau-Thierry & Bedleau Wood, winning the Second Battle of the Marne  Battle of Argonne Forest: French Marshal Ferdinand Foch orders counter attacks. AEF drives German forces back at Saint-Mihiel. On September 26, 1918, AEF fights Germans between the Meuse River & Argonne Forest suffering massive casualties but push the Germans back forcing them to retreat

33  Revolution throughout Austria-Hungary Empire leads to Poland, Hungary, & Czechoslovakia declaring their independence  November 3, 1918: Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empires surrender to the Allies  November 9, 1918: Germany agrees to an armistice.  November 11, 1918 – Fighting finally stops

34  Over 500k Americans died in combat  Over 200k were wounded  Over 60k will die from influenza (flu)  Flu epidemic (Spanish influenza) is believed to have killed 25 to 50 million worldwide & over 500k Americans

35  Four big players involved in the creation of the Treaty of Versailles 1919:  Woodrow Wilson United States  Georges Clemenceau France  David Lloyd George Britain  Vittorio Orlando Italy  Missing: Central Powers (especially Germany – will become a cause for WWII) & Russia as Allied leaders refused to recognize Lenin’s government

36  5 main points:  No secret treaties among nations  Freedom of seas for all  Tariffs & economic barriers should be lowered or abolished to foster free trade  Arms should be reduced to the point that only ensures domestic safety  Colonial policies should consider interest of colonial people & imperialist powers  8 points: dealt with the right of national self- determination that affected boundary changes of territory to be based on national identity  LAST POINT: establishment of League of Nations – Goal: was to help preserve the peace by respecting & protecting each other’s territory & political independence

37  Established 9 new nations  5 mandates from Ottoman Empire to be colonies for Britain & France  Alsace-Lorraine went back to France  Barred Germany from maintaining an army  War-guilt clause – war was totally Germany’s fault  Reparations: $33 billion  Creation of League of Nations Treaty ignored: freedom of the seas, free trade, & fair settlement of colonial claims SEE CHART ON PG. 198

38  Humiliated Germany (war-guilt clause)  Germany unable to pay reparations (lost colonies)  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was left out  Treaty ignored claims of colonized people for self-determination (i.e. Vietnamese)

39  Opposition included:  Economic burden could pull all of Europe down  Exchanging one form of imperialism for another  League of Nations (main opposition)  Wilson refused to compromise on the League of Nations  Senate does not ratify after voting twice  U.S. signs separate treaty with Germany in 1921 after Wilson leaves office, never joining the League of Nations

40 Americans wanted to return to “normalcy” (Harding’s platform) Europe destruction & massive loss of life severely damaged social & political systems communist state is formed (USSR) Fascism comes into existence (Italy, Spain, Germany). An aggressive nationalistic movement where the nation was more important than the individuals, usually ruled by a dictator

41  Stresses over the economy:  Rising prices on goods  Inflation  Unemployment – soldiers returning home need jobs & lack of orders for goods  Cost of living increases causes many Americans to revert back to nativism ideals  Belief in isolationism resurfaces  Fear of communism

42  Seattle General Strike 1919: 35k shipyard workers walked off job wanted higher wages & shorter hours. Other unions joined in a general strike involving more than 60k people paralyzing the city for 5 days. Americans would begin to see the general strike as a common tactic of Communists & other radical groups in Europe

43  Boston Police Strike 1919: Police had not received a raise since prior to WWI, had not been allowed to unionize, & other grievances. Representatives attempted to ask for a raise but would be fired. Rest of police force went on strike. Calvin Coolidge, governor, called out National Guard as he felt striking the law should be against the law when it jeopardized public safety & agreed with police commissioner to fire all the strikers. Strike would end & strikers were replaced with all NEW officers

44 Boston Policemen taking a meal during the Boston Police strike of 1919

45  Steel Mill Strike September 1919-January 1920: Workers wanted shorter working hours, a living wage, union recognition, & collective bargaining rights. U.S. Steel refused to meet with union representatives & 350k walked off the jobs. Company hired strikebreakers, used force against the workers striking, & launched a propaganda campaign stating the workers striking were communists. Strike ended. In January 1923 a report about working conditions in caused the steel companies to agree to an 8- hour workday

46  Coal Miners’ Strike 1919: United Mine Workers protested low wages & long workdays under the guidance of John L. Lewis & go on strike. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer will obtain a court order sending the miners back to work. Lewis declared it over but quietly gave the word for the strike to continue defying the court order. President Wilson appointed an arbitrator & the miners received a 27% wage increate. Shorter workday & a 5-day work week comes in the 1930s.

47 Steel Miner’s Strike Coal Miners’ Strike 1919

48  Unions were seen as communistic activities  Decline would be for:  immigrants willing to work in poor conditions  Language difference among immigrants  Farmers who migrated to cities for jobs were used to relying on themselves  Exclusion of African Americans

49  Summer 1919: 25 race riots across nation.  Longview, TX: angry whites burned shops & homes of Afr. Am.  Washington D.C. Afr. Am. & whites fought with each other for 4 days before troops gained control  Chicago, July 1919: Afr. Am. drift towards a white-only beach while in water. Whites tossed stones at them. Afr. Am. threw the stones back. Eventually a stone from a white person struck Afr. Am. in the back of the head, killing him. Riots occurred, lasting for almost two weeks. National Guard imposed order. Results: 38 killed – 15 white, 23 Afr. Am. More than 500 injured  NAACP will surge in membership, begin campaigning for a federal law against lynching, & publish a newspaper called “The Crisis” after the Chicago incident.

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52  Events leading up to raids:  April 1919: U.S. postal service discovered 30+ parcels contained bombs that were sent to prominent Americans  May 1919: Riots occurred over the jailing of Eugene Debs – leader of American Socialist Party. 2 killed, 40 injured  June 1919: 8 bombs in 8 cities within minutes of each other. One bomb damaged U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s home. General Intelligence Division (Federal Bureau of Investigation) formed to find evidence. Palmer targets the foreign born  November 1919 – Palmer raids begin in 12 cities. Union of Russian Workers is a targeted group with 249 deported back to Russia  January 1920 – Palmer raids headquarters of radical organizations. 6k arrested.  Raids continued until spring of 1920 with thousands detained. Officers searched homes & offices without search warrants. Raids found no hard evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy A. Mitchell Palmer

53 What recent time period does something like this repeat itself?

54  Candidates:  Democrats: James M. Cox, Ohio governor with FDR as his running mate  Republicans: Warren G. Harding – platform called for a “return to normalcy”  Harding wins the election


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