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Unit 5: WWII and it’s Aftermath Instructions: You need to follow along with the PowerPoint and fill in the necessary blanks!!!
Korematsu v. United States The court ruled that internment was constitutional because of military necessity.
Economic Trend of the time period a. Recovery from Depression “production miracle” during WWII i. WWII required a vast amount of factory produced goods, including tanks and airplanes, clothing, and food. ii. The factory work required large numbers of workers, which meant that women needed to enter the workforce to meet demand.
Economic Trend of the Time Period b. Consumerism of the 1950s i. All of the following wealth indictors rose during the 1950s: 1. Home ownership 2. Automobile registrations 3. Family income 4. Numbers of savings accounts ii. “American Dream”—suburbia: moving outside of city centers to places with more space. Showed wealth.
Race/ethnicity/immigration a.Still strict immigration prior to WWII (Jews not really allowed) with the Quota Acts. b.Japanese Internment: confining Japanese- Americans to prison camps after Pearl Harbor c.Mexican-Americans on homefront: worked for war effort as soldiers and in the bracero project growing food i. Many got out of poverty, but race riots.
Race/ethnicity/immigration d. African Americans on homefront: i. Men worked for war effort as soliders Tuskegee Airmen were bomber escorts who didn’t lose a man ii. Women worked in factories iii. Beginning of modern Civil Rights movement in an effort to desegregate the military iv. Race Riots happened in cities throughout the USA e. Post WWII: Truman issued Executive Order to desegregate the military
Political World Affairs – WWII Neutral? – Neutrality Acts: passed in 1935 to keep the USA out of wars. USA not allowed to sell arms or loans to nations at war – Lend-Lease Act: leasing arms to countries whose “defense was vital to the United States’ security” which meant mostly Britain and France – Atlantic Charter: a statement of war aims that was agreed upon by FDR and Britain’s leader Winston Churchill » Included: collective security, disarmament, self- determination, and economic cooperation. Pearl Harbor: When Japanese bombed naval base in Hawaii, threw us into WWII
End of WWII: “heroes” of the war – D-Day – Creation of the United Nations: created an international organization to promote world peace, security, and economic development
Beginning of Cold War: all about CONTAINING communism – Containment: don’t let communism spread Failed in China Korean War fought to contain communism – Result: stalemate, no one won or gained anything
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan: containment via economic recovery: send money to Western European countries to rebuild their countries after WWII, but only if countries allowed free elections and capitalism
NATO: a group of European nations and the USA and Canada that provided protection from the USSR (as seen in the Berlin Blockade when Soviets blocked all access to the city of Berlin, starving the people).
Eisenhower Doctrine: containment of communism in the Middle East Warsaw Pact: Soviet military alliance formed with Soviet Union and 7 satellite nations. Communist NATO Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): created to spy on communists abroad and carry out secret/covert missions to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the USA
Brinkmanship: to show atomic superiority: build up lots of bombs and expand air force so bombs can always be dropped Space Race begins: USSR and USA want to be the first country in space. Would show scientific superiority.
Public policy and reaction to it Dropping the bomb: debate in the United States surrounding it. – Yes: end the war quickly, show USA is strong – No: too deadly, people will want to always use it, USA will have to take responsibility for destruction Anti-Red Feelings – House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) questioning of American citizens in front of House of Representatives committee. Hollywood directors are the most infamous cases.
McCarthyism: accusing people of communist feelings without evidence. Mostly just bullying. Spy cases: Alger Hiss and Rosenbergs – Accused of leaking American secrets to the Soviets – Rosenbergs put to death. Said they were killed because they were Jewish and holding radical beliefs, and that they were innocent.
Change in how America is (technology/society) Atomic Bomb GI Bill of Rights: paying tuition for returned WWII soldiers and unemployment benefits for one year Emergence of the teenager: – Stayed in school longer, instead of working – Consumerism: teenagers were a new market for businesses, advertised to them. – new movies, music, and books especially for teenagers
Migration/Geography Movement North and West during WWII for factory work Internment: mass migration of Japanese Americans to camps away from West Coast, a potential war zone. They were confined to these camps “Continental” US: the main part of the USA (48 states), excludes Hawaii and Alaska