Wafd - Delegation September 18, 1918 Members of Umma Party – Lutfi al Sayyid – Saad Zaghlul – Muhammad Mahmud – Ali Sharawi – Abd al Aziz Fahmi Wanted to attend Paris Peace Conference November 13, 1918 – Yawm al Jihad (Day of Struggle) – Zaghlul, Sharawi, & Fahmi meet with Sir Reginald Wingate – Demand to go to London – Denied
Lutfi al Sayyid Saad Zaghlul Muhammad Mahmud Sir Reginald Wingate
1919 Revolution March 8 – Zaghlul and three others are thrown into Qasr an Nil prison, then deported to Malta – Popular uprising begins with violent clashes, student demonstrations, and massive strikes March 16 – upper class women, led by Safia Zaghlul and Huda Sharawi (founder of Egyptian Feminist Union), stage demonstrations March 17 – one of the largest demonstrations with over 10,000 participants marches from Al Azhar to Abdin Palace in Cairo
1919 Revolution General Edward Allenby sent to end revolution and demonstrations – Got agreement that if demonstrations stopped, Wafd would be allowed to go to Paris Peace Conference Lord Alfred Milner and Zaghlul made an Agreement in 1920 to work for Egyptian independence February 1921 – Britain okayed the abolishment of the protectorate April 4, 1921 – Zaghlul returns to Egypt to much fanfare December 23, 1921 - Allenby deports Zaghlul to the Seychelles – Major violent demonstrations break out again
Egyptian Independence – Of a Sort February 28, 1922 – Britain unilaterally declares Egyptian independence – No negotiations with any Egyptians – In independence, 4 matters were “absolutely reserved to the discretion” of Britain Communication security Defense of Egypt against foreign aggression Protection of foreign interests and minorities The Sudan Sultan Ahmad Fuad becomes King Fuad I – His son Faruk named heir April 19, 1922 – Egyptian constitution established – Electoral law issued for parliamentary elections
Political Issues King sought to preserve his prerogatives and limit power of parliament. Prime Minister Zaghlul sought to expand his powers and that of the parliament. King could appoint prime ministers and dissolve parliament Britain still had considerable influence in Egyptian affairs. Lack of cooperation and compromise on the part of political actors. Short lived governments and periods of royal rule.
1936 Britain renegotiates the 1922 declaration Britain retains right to deploy troops in Egypt
The Wafdist’s problems Too elite, Europeanized, and secular De-emphasized Arabic and Islamic values – Compulsory education for girls – Voluntary organizations outside of the political system organized to address social and economic problems ignored by Wafdists.
Muslim Brotherhood Established 1928 Leader Hasan al Banna By end of 1930’s 500 branches of the Brotherhood are established. Called for restoration of Shariah Law Some accommodation for modern society Call for economic reforms, land redistribution, social welfare programs, unemployment benefits Linked to labor movement Established schools with religious and secular curriculum Broad based support across class lines, rural and urban divide.
WWII 1939, Egypt does not declare war on Axis, only breaks off relations. 1942 February 4 th incident – British force King Farouk to appoint pro-British prime minister by force. Grain riots.
Arab League Created in 1945 Rise in nationalist feeling in Egypt. Egyptian leadership in creation of Arab League.
Teaching plans Time period -1882 to 1936 A single lesson in a larger unit about neo- imperialism, inner war years, or the modern Middle East, most likely in an AP class.
Key Questions How did neo-imperialist action affect the region? How did internal issues and actions affect the region in the inter-war years. How did independence and the history of the inter-war years lead to modern issues in Egypt?
Resources and Activities Photographs Book excerpts Power Point lecture News articles from the period and now Jigsaw book excerpts Compare and contrast historical and modern newspaper articles followed by discussion
Assessment How is the history of Egypt an example of neo- colonialism? How does the history of Egypt represent the larger issues of conflict between traditional Islamic/Arab values and modernity.