WIGGeD W ar I deologies G enocide G lobalization D ecolonization
World War I and Its Aftermath 1914-1919 Mentzer, R (site Administrator). (2010). Photos of the great war: World war I image archive. Retrieved from: www.gwpda.org/photos
World War I and Its Aftermath The Stage Is Set Powerful Forces were pushing towards War - MAIN Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
World War I and Its Aftermath The Stage Is Set - Nationalism An intense pride of one’s country/ extreme patriotism Nationalism can be positive force that binds people together It can also cause international tension
World War I and Its Aftermath The Stage Is Set - Imperialism In 1905 and 1911, competition for colonies almost brought France and Germany to war
World War I and Its Aftermath The Stage Is Set - Militarism The late 1800s saw a rise in militarism, or the glorification of the military Young men thought of war as graceful and heroic Militarism grew partly out of Social Darwinism The resulting arms race further increased suspicions The fiercest competition was between Germany and Britain
World War I and Its Aftermath The Stage Is Set - Alliances Fear and distrust led the great powers to seek protection through alliances, where nations sign treaties to protect one another in the event of war These alliances were supposed to prevent attack Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy When war began; Britain, France, and Russia became known as the Allies or Triple Entente
Franz Ferdinand Heir to Austrian throne His assassination Serbs viewed Austrians as oppressors He was killed by a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip This event dragged Russia in to help Serbia War!!!
World War I and Its Aftermath Schlieffen Plan Germany planned to attack France 1 st - then Russia to avoid _________. In order to defeat France quickly, Germany decided to march through Belgium and get behind the French lines On August 3, Germany invaded Belgium It was not quick!!
World War I and Its Aftermath A New Kind of Conflict.
World War I and Its Aftermath France mobilized 8.5 million The British mobilized 9 million Russia mobilized 12 million The Germans mobilized 11 million
Between the trenches lay “No Man’s Land” where everything was destroyed
World War I and Its Aftermath A New Kind of Conflict In 1916, both sides launched major attacks to break the stalemate The French held at Verdun, but both sides lost over a half a million men
World War I and Its Aftermath A New Kind of Conflict The allies launched an offensive at Somme River In one day, over 60,000 British were killed or wounded In the 5 month battle, over 5 million men were killed Neither side gained an advantage
World War I and Its Aftermath New Weapons Tanks Gas Planes U-Boats Machine Guns
Total War 1 st Total War: Complete use of all resources – Human, Industrial, Natural, Communication Resources Propaganda escalated: military, civilian, international Earned place for labor, women in politics Britain imposed conscription- the DRAFT
TOTAL WAR World War I spread out of Europe Unrestricted submarine warfare angered neutral nations The Allies overran German colonies and used their colonies for supplies, laborers, and troops Canada, Australia, and New Zealand sent troops to help Britain
War outside of Europe 1915 War in Middle East, Africa, Asia Japan attacked German holdings African, Indian, Asian troops sent to Western Front Young Turks supported Germany
A Brief Intermission: The Russian Revolution Notes
1. Nicolas II- The Last of the Romanovs Became Czar in 1894 Became Czar in 1894 Did not see the problems of his empire. Did not see the problems of his empire. Stubbornly refused to admit that times were changing. Stubbornly refused to admit that times were changing. – Many wanted democracy – Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians wanted independence – Wanted land reform Nicolas did not tolerate dissent Nicolas did not tolerate dissent – Secret Police persecuted these radicals, peasants, minorities, etc. http://public-domain-images.blogspot.com/2010_05_30_archive.html
2. Bloody Sunday Jan 22, 1905 Jan 22, 1905 About 200,000 working class people marched to the Czar’s winter palace About 200,000 working class people marched to the Czar’s winter palace He was not there, but his guard fired on the crowd- 500-1000 died He was not there, but his guard fired on the crowd- 500-1000 died Results: Results: – Lenin called it a “dress rehearsal” for revolution – Wave of strikes and violence – Nicolas created Duma (parliament)- he dissolved it after 10 days because he didn’t want to share power.
3. World War I At outset of WWI, Russia had largest military. At outset of WWI, Russia had largest military. 4 million died in 1 st year- unprepared 4 million died in 1 st year- unprepared Rasputin Rasputin – A mysterious “holy man” who seemed able to treat prince Alexis’ hemophilia – Became influential in gov. – Opposed reforms – Was assassinated -1916 Very bad morale for Russian troops. Desertion, mutiny, etc. Very bad morale for Russian troops. Desertion, mutiny, etc. The stage is set for a revolution. The stage is set for a revolution. George H. Mewes,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Russian_Troops_NGM-v31-p379.jpg
4. March Revolution March 1917- Petrograd- women textile workers strike March 1917- Petrograd- women textile workers strike 200,000 workers swarmed the streets 200,000 workers swarmed the streets Soldiers fired on crowds at first, but switched sides shouting “Down with Autocracy” “Down with the War” Soldiers fired on crowds at first, but switched sides shouting “Down with Autocracy” “Down with the War” Nicolas abdicated- stepped down. Nicolas abdicated- stepped down. A year later Nicolas and family was executed. A year later Nicolas and family was executed.
5. The Provisional Government Alexander Kerensky Alexander Kerensky – When Nicolas was removed, Kerensky lead PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT(temporary gov) – Continued war- angered citizens – Peasants and workers became more radical The Soviets- social REVOLUTIONARES made local councils of workers, peasants and soldiers called Soviets. The Soviets- social REVOLUTIONARES made local councils of workers, peasants and soldiers called Soviets. Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin – Sent back to Russia in April 1917 by Germany – Germany hoped he would weaken Russian war effort – It worked
6. The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin and the Bolsheviks quickly gained control of many Soviets Lenin and the Bolsheviks quickly gained control of many Soviets “All power to the soviets” “All power to the soviets” “Peace, Land, and Bread” “Peace, Land, and Bread” In Nov 1917, the Bolshevik Red Guard stormed the winter palace and replaced Kerensjky and the provisional gov. In Nov 1917, the Bolshevik Red Guard stormed the winter palace and replaced Kerensjky and the provisional gov. Vladimir Lenin. Unknown photographer. Public domain. http://www.shmoop.com/wwi/photo-lenin.html
7. Lenin Restores Order What did Lenin do? What did Lenin do? 1.Distributed all farmland to peasants 2.Factory control was given to the workers 3.March 1918- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed. Russia drops out of WWI, but surrenders a huge chunk of land to the Germans. http://im g.timein c.net/tim e/photo essays/2 007/ussr/ october_ 21.jpg
8. Civil War A civil war ensued. A civil war ensued. – Red Army- lead by Leon Trotsky – White Army- was against the Communists. U.S.A. and other western countries supported White Army – It lasted from 1918-1920. About 15,000,000 died.