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RequiredExtra Credit Burundi Central African Republic Congo Madagascar Liberia EgyptRwanda Mali Ethiopia South Africa Namibia Kenya Somalia Swaziland.

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Presentation on theme: "RequiredExtra Credit Burundi Central African Republic Congo Madagascar Liberia EgyptRwanda Mali Ethiopia South Africa Namibia Kenya Somalia Swaziland."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RequiredExtra Credit Burundi Central African Republic Congo Madagascar Liberia EgyptRwanda Mali Ethiopia South Africa Namibia Kenya Somalia Swaziland Libya Sudan Uganda Zimbabwe

3  The Pursuit of Peace  1896 – 1 st Modern Olympic Games held to promote peace among nations  Nobel Prizes set up to recognize those who use their talents to push for peace  Women’s Suffrage Movements and Pacifist Movements  The Hague Tribunal set up to give nations a place to challenge each other in a court rather than in war  Aggressive Nationalism  GERMANY & FRANCE: Both nations proud of their heritage.  France bitter about loss to Germany in 1871  EASTERN EUROPE: Russia supported pro-slav movement  Austria-Hungary & Ottman Empire feared rising nationalism

4  Rivalries Among European Powers:  Economic Rivalries increase tensions between nations  Germany begins to outpace Britain as economic power  IMPERIALISM: Competition for lands overseas spilled over into tensions in Europe  MILITARISM and the ARMS RACE: The glorification of the military caused a built up of military power in some countries (social darwinism). If a country is well armed, they are more likely to go to war. Military leaders gained power within their governments  A Tangle of Alliances  Distrust among nations led to alliances being made  CENTRAL POWERS: Germany, Austria-Hungary (A-H)& Italy  ALLIES: France, Britain, Russia  Most alliance were secret before the war

5  A Japanese person shoots and kills our president while he is visiting Japag. That person is captured and questioned. Here is what is learned: They are angry at America because it has weakened Japan’s standing as a powerful nation * They still blame the US for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Japanese when it dropped the A-Bomb They believe by killing our president, it will show the weakness of America to the world  Who should we blame? The person who killed our president: Japan: or Both?????

6  Assassination in Sarajevo  When Archduke Ferdinand is killed while visiting Sarajevo, it sets off events that lead to war  A lone Serb assassinates the heir to the throne of A-H  The Conflict Widens  A-H demands that Serbia end all anti-Austrian action  All involved must be punished  Serbia agrees to most but not all demands  On July 28, 1914, A-H declares war on Serbia

7  The Conflict Begins  A war between 2 countries might have been a short war  But ALLIANCES drew others into the conflict  Each was a little “braver” knowing they had a major power as an ally  A-H had Germany to back it up (Germany mobilized as A-H declared war)  Serbia had Russia to back it up (Russia mobilized as Serbia went to war)  Russia appealed to its ally, France  Germany demanded France stay out of it, when they did not, Germany went to war with France  SCHIEFFEN PLAN: Germany’s plan to go through Belgium to get to France and surprise it. It worked, but drew Britain into the war because they were allies of Belgium  The Historian’s View  How could an assassination lead to a “world war?”  Both sides believed they were right in going to war  Once the war machine started up, it was impossible to stop  Young men rushed to enlist, seeking adventure and glory

8  Identify 5 new technologies of World War I  Make a drawing of those technologies used in a war setting  Example:  Identify 5 new technologies of World War I  Make a drawing of those technologies used in a war setting  Example: Poison Gas

9  The Western Front  The war will mostly be fought in the lands between Germany and France: “THE WESTERN FRONT”  Stalemate will be the reality of war  TRENCH WARFARE: Both sides burrowed into a vast system of trenches that stretched across the landscape  Millions of soldiers roasted/froze in trenches will little is gained by either side.  Food was rotten, Lice and Rats were common, trenchfoot was common  “No Man’s Land” – the area between the trenches deadly  “Over the Top”- men were ordered to go over the top out into no man’s land to attack the other trench  COSTLY BATTLES: Both sides lose huge numbers  France: over 11 months lost over ½ million soldiers  Britain: on one day lost 60,000 soldiers

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11  Technology of Modern War  New Weapons increased the level of destruction  ArtilleryPoison Gas  Machine GunsArmored Tank  AircraftZeppelins  U-BoatsConvoys  The Global Conflict  Eastern Europe: Russia will suffer greatly due to WWI. Will withdraw after a revolution in Russia  Southern Europe: Italians will side with Germany and suffer many losses. Will switch sides during the war  The War Outside Europe: Britain used war as an excuse to take German regions (china). Ottoman Empire will close Suez Canal, Allies will attack at Gallipoli and defeat  War and the Colonies: Britain turns to its colonies for fresh soldiers. Some joined willingly, others less so. Most believed by helping, they would have a better chance at independence after the war

12  Total War  ECONOMIC IMPACT: Early on, millions volunteered, then were drafted (conscription). The government raised taxes to pay for war. They also borrowed huge amounts of money to pay for the war. PROPAGANDA WAR: Controlling public opinion was huge in winning the war. Keeping bad news from the public also important (especially the high number of casualties). Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage your opponent. Atrocities by the enemy were often highlighted to enrage the public IMPACT ON WOMEN: As men left, women took over jobs to keep the war effort going. Women volunteered to join/help the military. Nurses were in high demand. Because of how they helped, women took a great source of pride in all they did.

13  Collapsing Morale:  The morale of soldiers on both sides was bad. War wasn’t glorious. Both sides had huge numbers of deserters and mutineers  Revolution in Russia: The Czar was overthrown and eventually Russia was controlled by the Communist party who withdrew Russia from WWI. The Allies had hoped the new government would be better at fighting, but were not ready for a total withdrawal  Impact on the War: Russia’s withdraw had an immediate impact on WWI. Germany no longer was fighting a 2 front war and could concentrate their troops on the Allies in France. This gave the Central Powers a big advantage  The US Declares War:  Unrestricted Submarine (Uboat) Warfare: Germany had the Uboat which meant they could sink Allied warships. The Allies began shipping war supplies on merchant and passenger ships. The Germans began sinking those too. The US insisted Germany allow neutral countries passage. They did at the beginning but began sinking those when they were used to supply the Allies.  ** The Lusitania was sunk, killing 128 US civilians. Wilson angrily denounced Germany

14  The US Declares War:  Cultural Ties: Most Americans supported the Allies. Language and cultural ties with Britain as well as a democratic form of government leaned US support that way. Some disagreed (German-Americans, Irish Americans, & Russian-Americans)  Zimmermann Note: A message intercepted between Germany and Mexico enraged the US. Mexico wanted nothing to do with Germany and the war, but Germany asked them to start a war with the US. In exchange, Mexico would get CA, AR, NM, NV and TX back  Declaring War: The Zimmermann Note was the final straw. The US declared war in April  * The US needed months to recruit, train, supply and transport troops  * By million US troops in Europe – turns the tide of the war  The Fourteen Points: President Wilson had failed to keep the US out of the war, but he still wanted to be the cause of peace. As the war winded down, he introduced a plan “14 Points” that called for  *FREEDOM OF THE SEAS *FREE TRADE *LARGE SCALE ARMS REDUCTION *END TO SECRET TREATIES *SELF-DETERMINATION LEAGUE OF NATIONS

15  Campaign to Victory:  US entry into war meant Germany in retreat  In Germany, Generals told Kaiser war was lost, People revolted due to lack of food, harsh conditions. The Kaiser will step down  In Austria-Hungary, the nation was in collapse. The Hapsburg empire splintered into NATIONALIST regions  The new government of Germany asked for an ARMISTICE (ceasefire). The Allies insisted on TOTAL SURRENDER  The Armistice was signed November 11, 1918

16  The Cost of War ( Cost in lives and money staggering)  8.5 Million dead, double that wounded  Famine threatened region  Pandemic (Flu) devastated Europe and world (20 million dead)  Financial burden: Regions of war in rubbles. Cost to rebuild was beyond each country’s ability to fix. The Allies blamed the conflict on Germany and demanded REPARATIONS  Political Turmoil: Many country’s governments collapsed as a result of the war. Political radicals demanded a new social order. Unrest swept thru regions controlled by European colonial powers. Native peoples (and soldiers returning from war) challenged, and won their independence  The Paris Peace Treaty  The Big Three (US, France, Britain) each had their own agenda  Difficult Issues: War Reparations sought  * Self-Determination posed problems  * The League of Nations: The only real concession Wilson got at conference

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18  The Treaty of Versailles (WWI Peace Treaty)  Germans horrified by terms of the Peace Treaty  Germany had to admit responsibility for the war  Germany had to make HUGE war reparation payments ($30 billion)  Germany would lose territory (both German lands and colonies)  Germany would not be allowed a military force  Germany signed because they had no choice  Widespread dissatisfaction  Self-Determination in Eastern Europe  Poland regained independence. Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia emerged as nations  Mandate System  German colonial holdings put in European control until able to “stand alone”  Unfulfilled Goals  Italy did not get promised lands for switching sides Japan did not get recognition for holdings in China  Russia angry about Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia  Hopes for Global Peace - League of Nations A place for nations to address their grievances peacefully (40+ Nations joined) The US would refuse to join – essentially dooming it to fail

19  World War I shocked the world › Europe in a meltdown › Level of destruction  Peace Treaty meant to PUNISH › Devastated Germany › Set up conditions that led to World War II

20  1) What circumstances created the conditions that led to a WORLD WAR?  2) Describe 3 ways new technologies affected World War I. Give specific examples and explain HOW they impacted the war  VOCABULARY › ArmisticeMandateNeutrality › AtrocityMilitarismPropaganda › EntenteMobilizeReparations › Ultimatum

21  Ways peace was pursued  Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism  Central Powers, Allies (who was on which side)  Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand  Secret Alliances  Schiefflin Plan  New Technologies/Old Strategies  How/Where WWI spread outside of the Western Front  Total War ( Economic Impact, Propaganda, Impact on Women )  US Entry into World War I (Why, When, What Impact)  Making the Peace (14 Points, Treaty of Versailles)  Dissatisfaction with the Peace Treaty  Costs of World War I


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