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“I Am Not Forgotten” By Richard L. Kirk (USA C/58AFA/3DIV) I have walked these Korean hills before, crossed these rivers I have passed through these fields,

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Presentation on theme: "“I Am Not Forgotten” By Richard L. Kirk (USA C/58AFA/3DIV) I have walked these Korean hills before, crossed these rivers I have passed through these fields,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 “I Am Not Forgotten” By Richard L. Kirk (USA C/58AFA/3DIV) I have walked these Korean hills before, crossed these rivers I have passed through these fields, heavy with the odor of growth My presence is here… and elsewhere In the pages of a letter, yellow with age At the edge of a photograph, on a torn dance program I am by love begotten I am not forgotten

3 I am here in the hearts of those who were with me On the perimeter, at Inchon, at The Reservoir and The River And in the hearts of those who waited In their thoughts I walk again And I wait at the curb in my car on a soft summer evening The sounds of crickets, of passing automobiles And the muted songs of the city are near I am a tear in the eyes of mothers, sisters, fathers, Brothers, wives, friends, lovers I am by love begotten I am not forgotten

4 I am black, white, Jewish, Gentile, red, yellow I speak English, Korean, Chinese, Turkish, Greek, Spanish I am known in many countries and by many people I have heard the rush of summer seas and the fist of thunder I have known a distant star on a cold December night And I have known the love of a friend who would die for me And I for him I am by love begotten I am not forgotten

5 “The Forgotten War” Korean Conflict

6 TV Series: 1972 – 1983 Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

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12 Pool of Remembrance

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15 The South The North FormalName PoliticalLeader Syngman Rhee Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Republic of Korea Kim Il Sung

16 South Korean Flag North Korean Flag

17 The South The North Capital Economy Climate/Landscape Population Seoul agriculture Warm, Typhoons - Plains Two-thirds Pyongyang industry Colder, less rain – mountains One-third

18 Background Information A. The End of WWII Japanese in South K. surrendered to U.S.* US LEAVES, 500 advisorsJapanese in South K. surrendered to U.S.* US LEAVES, 500 advisors Japanese in North K.surrendered to S.U.*1948-SU leaves but leaves weaponsJapanese in North K.surrendered to S.U.*1948-SU leaves but leaves weapons Both governments claimed right to rule entire country, minor attacks across DMZ happenedBoth governments claimed right to rule entire country, minor attacks across DMZ happened

19 Background Information B. Acheson’s Statement U.S. Secretary of Defense U.S. Secretary of Defense “The U.S. would help if…. An attack was made to the east of defense line from Alaska to Japan to the Philippines. Korea and Vietnam were located to the“The U.S. would help if…. An attack was made to the east of defense line from Alaska to Japan to the Philippines. Korea and Vietnam were located to the West- outside the perimeter.” * This was the green light that the SU wanted.

20 C. Reasons for Soviet Involvement US believed SU pressured NK to invade*US believed SU pressured NK to invade* SU got involved b/c of this Acheson & ChinaSU got involved b/c of this Acheson & China D. U.S.’s (non) interest in Korea Military hated Korea- weather, people, just had gotten home from there Military hated Korea- weather, people, just had gotten home from there Our citizens hated it too- not ready to fight again. Our citizens hated it too- not ready to fight again. Executive Privilege:Executive Privilege: “the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides” “the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides” E. The S.U. Boycotts the U.N. Two reasons why & impact of their decision*Two reasons why & impact of their decision*

21 Truman was interested though, why? He wanted containment and ordered air and naval support to Senator Taft said “no way”- you need congressional approval for war. BUT….. Executive Privilege:Executive Privilege: “the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides” “the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides”

22 Truman commits troops under the auspices of the United Nations. This will set a precedent for Vietnam and Iraq.

23 The Soviet Union boycotted the UN Two possible reasons: Two possible reasons: - Communist China was not accepted into UN - Wanted to reveal the UN as a tool of the US (propaganda) - * The SU is one of the 5 permanent members of the Security Council - * They were not present when the vote was taken to support SK in the conflict - * Many UN countries were contributing troops, arms or money.

24 The Fighting A. The North Invades the South NK captures Seoul*NK captures Seoul* Push to Pusan PeninsulaPush to Pusan Peninsula SK prepares an offensive strategySK prepares an offensive strategy

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27 B. MacArthur Clears the South Vice-Grip/Hammer and Anvil strategy*Vice-Grip/Hammer and Anvil strategy* Land behind enemy at xLand behind enemy at x Inchon and push down Same time Pusan held SK recaptures SeoulSK recaptures Seoul Now what?*Now what?* Containment… Containment… … or Roll-back? … or Roll-back?

28 B. MacArthur Clears the South Communism was contained but… Communism was contained but… the main goal was to reunite Korea.

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30 C. The South Enters the North US and SK capture PyongyangUS and SK capture Pyongyang D. Chinese Involvement Chinese threatened to enter if…Yalu approachedChinese threatened to enter if…Yalu approached China also asked for weapons from SU and air support for cover.China also asked for weapons from SU and air support for cover. Chinese began to infiltrate NK lines*Chinese began to infiltrate NK lines*

31 D. We didn’t believe that the Chinese would really enter the war but they begin to infiltrate N.Korean lines and we start to capture them.

32 D. In a short period, over 300,000 Chinese were identified. There was an increase in defectors too! US and SK were pushed back, Seoul lost. Return to containment?

33 E. MacArthur is Demoted Conflict with Truman over China*Conflict with Truman over China* Here’s Why?

34 MacArthur Gets Fired- MacArthur wanted to bomb southern China and send in troops. MacArthur wanted to bomb southern China and send in troops. But, China and SU had a pact to back each other up. But, China and SU had a pact to back each other up. Truman was afraid that the SU had the bomb and it would begin WWIII. Truman was afraid that the SU had the bomb and it would begin WWIII. He rejects MacArthur’s idea. He rejects MacArthur’s idea.

35 MacArthur Gets Fired- MacArthur began to solicit support for his ideas from the media MacArthur began to solicit support for his ideas from the media Truman feared he couldn’t trust MacArthur and removed him from post Truman feared he couldn’t trust MacArthur and removed him from post MacArthur welcomed back to the US with open arms and gave his famous speech MacArthur welcomed back to the US with open arms and gave his famous speech Gave a speech to Congress:”old soldiers don’t die, they fade away.” Gave a speech to Congress:”old soldiers don’t die, they fade away.”

36 MacArthur Gets Fired- Matthew Ridgeway took his place Matthew Ridgeway took his place US regained SK land up to about the 38 th parallel again (including Seoul) US regained SK land up to about the 38 th parallel again (including Seoul)

37 IMMEDIATE RELEASEApril 10, 1951 ORDER TO GENERAL MACARTHUR FROM THE PRESIDENT I deeply regret that it becomes my duty as President and Commander in Chief of the United States military forces to replace you as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers; Commander in Chief, United Nations Command; Commander in Chief, Far East; and Commanding General, U.S. Army, Far East. You will turn over your commands, effective at once, to Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway. You are authorized to have issued such orders as are necessary to complete desired travel to such place as you select. My reasons for your replacement will be made public concurrently with the delivery to you of the foregoing order, and are contained in the next following message.

38 IMMEDIATE RELEASEApril 10, 1951 STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT With deep regret I have concluded that General of the Army Douglas MacArthur is unable to give his wholehearted support to the policies of the United States Government and of the United Nations in matters pertaining to his official duties. In view of the specific responsibilities imposed upon me by the Constitution of the United States and the added responsibility which has been entrusted to me by the United Nations, I have decided that I must make a change of command in the Far East. I have, therefore, relieved General MacArthur of his commands and have designated Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway as his successor. Full and vigorous debate on matters of national policy is a vital element in the constitutional system of our free democracy. It is fundamental., however, that military commanders must be governed by the policies and directives issued to them in the manner provided by our laws and Constitution. In time of crisis, this consideration is particularly compelling. General MacArthur's place in history as one of our greatest commanders is fully established. The nation owes him a debt of gratitude for the distinguished and exceptional service which he has rendered his country in posts of great responsibility. For that reason I repeat my regret at the necessity for the action I feel compelled to take in his case.

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41 The Aftermath A. Cease-fire Terms Talks held at PanmunjomTalks held at Panmunjom Armistice, but no treaty 1953Armistice, but no treaty 1953 Established cease-fire line Established cease-fire line Developed demilitarized zone* Developed demilitarized zone* Set terms to release POWs* Set terms to release POWs*

42 The Aftermath A. Cease-fire Terms DMZ- buffer zone four miles wide 1990s over one million troops there Set terms to release POWsSet terms to release POWs Released at KaesongReleased at Kaesong Chinese and NK did not want to return to their countries50000 Chinese and NK did not want to return to their countries Placed in neutral condition for 3 monthsPlaced in neutral condition for 3 months

43 The Aftermath -Nk and China demanded their POWs; Rhee simply let them go (escape) US decided that Rhee could not be trusted and made plans to overthrow him which didn’t happen. NK mistreated POWs – Mr. Milantoni’s story

44 B. 2 Final Communist Offensives U.S. response… we damaged irrigation dams for NK hence water interrupted.U.S. response… we damaged irrigation dams for NK hence water interrupted. C. Statistics U.S. = 54,000 dead; 100,000 woundedU.S. = 54,000 dead; 100,000 wounded $15 billion Korea = 14 million dead; 2/3 civiliansKorea = 14 million dead; 2/3 civilians China = 390,000 deadChina = 390,000 dead Japan = supplied materials for both sides; post WWII economic boostJapan = supplied materials for both sides; post WWII economic boost “Korea was Japan’s Marshall Plan”“Korea was Japan’s Marshall Plan”

45 D. Present Day Demilitarized zone between N & SDemilitarized zone between N & S U.S. involvementU.S. involvement 1991 and 2000 Olympics1991 and 2000 Olympics North Korean and Chinese border North Korean and Chinese border North Korea and nuclear weaponsNorth Korea and nuclear weapons


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