Presentation on theme: "“I Am Not Forgotten” I have walked these Korean hills before,"— Presentation transcript:
1“I Am Not Forgotten” I have walked these Korean hills before, By Richard L. Kirk (USA C/58AFA/3DIV)I have walked these Korean hills before,crossed these riversI have passed through these fields,heavy with the odor of growthMy presence is here… and elsewhereIn the pages of a letter, yellow with ageAt the edge of a photograph,on a torn dance programI am by love begottenI am not forgotten
2I am here in the hearts of those who were with me On the perimeter, at Inchon, at The Reservoir and The RiverAnd in the hearts of those who waitedIn their thoughts I walk againAnd I wait at the curb in my car on a soft summer eveningThe sounds of crickets, of passing automobilesAnd the muted songs of the city are nearI am a tear in the eyes of mothers, sisters, fathers,Brothers, wives, friends, loversI am by love begottenI am not forgotten
3I am black, white, Jewish, Gentile, red, yellow I speak English, Korean, Chinese,Turkish, Greek, SpanishI am known in many countries and by many peopleI have heard the rush of summer seasand the fist of thunderI have known a distant staron a cold December nightAnd I have known the loveof a friend who would die for meAnd I for himI am by love begottenI am not forgotten
16Seoul agriculture industry The SouthThe NorthCapitalEconomyClimate/LandscapePopulationSeoulPyongyangagricultureindustryWarm,Typhoons -PlainsColder,less rain –mountainsOne-thirdTwo-thirds
17Background Information A. The End of WWIIJapanese in South K. surrendered to U.S.* US LEAVES, 500 advisorsJapanese in North K.surrendered to S.U.*1948-SU leaves but leaves weaponsBoth governments claimed right to rule entire country, minor attacks across DMZ happened
18Background Information B. Acheson’s StatementU.S. Secretary of Defense“The U.S. would help if…. An attack was made to the east of defense line from Alaska to Japan to the Philippines. Korea and Vietnam were located to theWest- outside the perimeter.”* This was the green light that the SU wanted.
19C. Reasons for Soviet Involvement US believed SU pressured NK to invade*SU got involved b/c of this Acheson & ChinaD. U.S.’s (non) interest in KoreaMilitary hated Korea- weather, people, just had gotten home from thereOur citizens hated it too- not ready to fight again.Executive Privilege:“the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides”E. The S.U. Boycotts the U.N.Two reasons why & impact of their decision*
20Truman was interested though, why? He wanted containment and ordered air and naval support to Senator Taft said “no way”- you need congressional approval for war. BUT…..Executive Privilege:“the president does not have to disclose information to congression or the Supreme Court. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or the private discussions/debates of the president with close aides”
21Truman commits troops under the auspices of the United Nations. This will set a precedent for Vietnam and Iraq.
22The Soviet Union boycotted the UN Two possible reasons:Communist China was not accepted into UNWanted to reveal the UN as a tool of the US (propaganda)* The SU is one of the 5 permanent members of the Security Council* They were not present when the vote was taken to support SK in the conflict* Many UN countries were contributing troops, arms or money.
23The Fighting A. The North Invades the South NK captures Seoul* Push to Pusan PeninsulaSK prepares an offensive strategy
29C. The South Enters the North D. Chinese Involvement US and SK capture PyongyangD. Chinese InvolvementChinese threatened to enter if…Yalu approachedChina also asked for weapons from SU and air support for cover.Chinese began to infiltrate NK lines*
30D. We didn’t believe that the Chinese would really enter the war but they begin to infiltrate N.Korean lines and we start to capture them.
31D. In a short period, over 300,000 Chinese were identified. There was an increase in defectors too!US and SK were pushed back, Seoul lost. Return to containment?
32E. MacArthur is DemotedConflict with Truman over China*Here’s Why?
33MacArthur Gets Fired-MacArthur wanted to bomb southern China and send in troops.But, China and SU had a pact to back each other up.Truman was afraid that the SU had the bomb and it would begin WWIII.He rejects MacArthur’s idea.
34MacArthur Gets Fired-MacArthur began to solicit support for his ideas from the mediaTruman feared he couldn’t trust MacArthur and removed him from postMacArthur welcomed back to the US with open arms and gave his famous speechGave a speech to Congress:”old soldiers don’t die, they fade away.”
35MacArthur Gets Fired- Matthew Ridgeway took his place US regained SK land up to about the 38th parallel again (including Seoul)
36IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 10, ORDER TO GENERAL MACARTHUR FROM THE PRESIDENT I deeply regret that it becomes my duty as President and Commander in Chief of the United States military forces to replace you as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers; Commander in Chief, United Nations Command; Commander in Chief, Far East; and Commanding General, U.S. Army, Far East. You will turn over your commands, effective at once, to Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway. You are authorized to have issued such orders as are necessary to complete desired travel to such place as you select. My reasons for your replacement will be made public concurrently with the delivery to you of the foregoing order, and are contained in the next following message.
37IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 10, STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT With deep regret I have concluded that General of the Army Douglas MacArthur is unable to give his wholehearted support to the policies of the United States Government and of the United Nations in matters pertaining to his official duties. In view of the specific responsibilities imposed upon me by the Constitution of the United States and the added responsibility which has been entrusted to me by the United Nations, I have decided that I must make a change of command in the Far East. I have, therefore, relieved General MacArthur of his commands and have designated Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway as his successor. Full and vigorous debate on matters of national policy is a vital element in the constitutional system of our free democracy. It is fundamental., however, that military commanders must be governed by the policies and directives issued to them in the manner provided by our laws and Constitution. In time of crisis, this consideration is particularly compelling. General MacArthur's place in history as one of our greatest commanders is fully established. The nation owes him a debt of gratitude for the distinguished and exceptional service which he has rendered his country in posts of great responsibility. For that reason I repeat my regret at the necessity for the action I feel compelled to take in his case.
40The Aftermath A. Cease-fire Terms Talks held at Panmunjom Armistice, but no treaty 1953Established cease-fire lineDeveloped demilitarized zone*Set terms to release POWs*
41The Aftermath Cease-fire Terms DMZ- buffer zone four miles wide 1990s over one million troops thereSet terms to release POWsReleased at Kaesong50000 Chinese and NK did not want to return to their countriesPlaced in neutral condition for 3 months
42The Aftermath-Nk and China demanded their POWs; Rhee simply let them go (escape)US decided that Rhee could not be trusted and made plans to overthrow him which didn’t happen.NK mistreated POWs – Mr. Milantoni’s story
43B. 2 Final Communist Offensives U.S. response… we damaged irrigation dams for NK hence water interrupted.C. StatisticsU.S. = 54,000 dead; 100,000 wounded$15 billionKorea = 14 million dead; 2/3 civiliansChina = 390,000 deadJapan = supplied materials for both sides; post WWII economic boost“Korea was Japan’s Marshall Plan”
44D. Present Day Demilitarized zone between N & S U.S. involvement 1991 and 2000 OlympicsNorth Korean and Chinese borderNorth Korea and nuclear weapons