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Independence in Spanish America Causes and Results.

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Presentation on theme: "Independence in Spanish America Causes and Results."— Presentation transcript:

1 Independence in Spanish America Causes and Results

2 The Spanish American colonies were composed of 4 viceroyalties: Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador) Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador) Viceroyalty of Peru (also known as Viceroyalty of Castile: Peru, Chile) Viceroyalty of Peru (also known as Viceroyalty of Castile: Peru, Chile) Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (Argentina) Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (Argentina)

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4 The Causes and Influences of the Independence movements The Causes: The Bourbon Reforms The Bourbon Reforms The Enlightenment The Enlightenment The Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars The Influences: The American Revolution The American Revolution The French Revolution The French Revolution The Haitian Revolution The Haitian Revolution

5 Napoleonic wars result in Bourbon Reforms Napoleon seized the Spanish throne in Napoleon seized the Spanish throne in Deposed King Ferdinand Deposed King Ferdinand Spanish control in colonies is weakened since their attention is diverted by Napoleonic Wars. Spanish control in colonies is weakened since their attention is diverted by Napoleonic Wars. When Ferdinand is restored to throne in 1814, he institutes the Bourbon Reforms in an effort to regain control of the Spanish American colonies. When Ferdinand is restored to throne in 1814, he institutes the Bourbon Reforms in an effort to regain control of the Spanish American colonies. Jacques-Louis David Napoleon Crossing The Alps, 1800 Francisco de Goya, Portrait of Ferdinand VII, 1814.

6 Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, Francisco Goya was commissioned by Charles IV, and Ferdinand VII as official court portraitist. This is one of his most famous paintings, which depicts the events of May 3, 1808, when Napoleon’s troops executed Spanish civilians in Madrid. This is an example of the ways in which the Napoleonic Wars weakened the authority of the Spanish Empire.

7 Bourbon Reforms The Intendancy System: Creation of Viceroyalties Trade Reforms: Strengthened mercantilist system Church Reforms: Curtailed influence of Catholic Church Military Reforms: Strengthened military presence in colonies

8 Church Reform Antiguo Colegio de Ildefonso, Mexico City Antiguo Colegio de Ildefonso, Mexico City A Peruvian painting from the second half of the 18th century demonstrates the influence the Catholic Church wielded in the colonies. Bourbon Reforms wanted to curtail this power. A Peruvian painting from the second half of the 18th century demonstrates the influence the Catholic Church wielded in the colonies. Bourbon Reforms wanted to curtail this power.

9 The Enlightenment The Enlightenment was “an international climate of opinion.” The Enlightenment was “an international climate of opinion.” Concerned with philosophy, economics, and science. Concerned with philosophy, economics, and science. Economic ideas: Adam Smith. Economic ideas: Adam Smith. Political ideas: John Locke, Jean- Jacques Rousseau Political ideas: John Locke, Jean- Jacques Rousseau Enlightenment thought espoused by colonial universities. Enlightenment thought espoused by colonial universities.

10 The Influences The American Revolution The American Revolution The French Revolution The French Revolution The Haitian Revolution: successful slave uprising inspires some, instills fear of mob rule in others. The Haitian Revolution: successful slave uprising inspires some, instills fear of mob rule in others. Girodet, Toussaint Louverture, 1797.

11 Early Revolts & Protests Political revolts and social rebellions began in the 18 th Century. These revolts and rebellions were precursors to the wars of independence that began in the 19 th Century. Political revolts and social rebellions began in the 18 th Century. These revolts and rebellions were precursors to the wars of independence that began in the 19 th Century. To understand the reasons why people rebelled, it is necessary to understand the socio-political dynamic of colonial Spanish America. To understand the reasons why people rebelled, it is necessary to understand the socio-political dynamic of colonial Spanish America.

12 Sistema de Castas Colonial Spanish America society was divided into a hierarchy based upon race and status. This caste system is known as the sistema de castas. Colonial Spanish America society was divided into a hierarchy based upon race and status. This caste system is known as the sistema de castas. Creoles, mestizos, free people of color, slaves, and Indians participated in early revolts for various reasons. All the rebellions resulted from grievances related to the exploitation of Spanish colonial rule. Creoles, mestizos, free people of color, slaves, and Indians participated in early revolts for various reasons. All the rebellions resulted from grievances related to the exploitation of Spanish colonial rule.

13 Sistema de Castas Spanish Ruling Class (Peninsulars) Creoles: Spaniards born in colonies. Many were elites. Mestizos: Mixed blood- Spanish & Indian mix Indians: Indigenous people of the Americas Blacks: Mulattos, Free Blacks, and Slaves

14 The LACMA Casta Exhibit The Los Angeles Museum of Art recently featured an exhibit on a special genre of art called casta. The Los Angeles Museum of Art recently featured an exhibit on a special genre of art called casta. These paintings reveal the ways in which the Spanish identified people through race in the Spanish American colonies. These paintings reveal the ways in which the Spanish identified people through race in the Spanish American colonies.

15 The Casta Paintings De Mulatto y Mestiza, Produce Mulatto es Torna Atrás (From Spaniard and Mestiza, Produce a Mulatto Return Backwards). Juan Rodriguez Juarez, De Mulatto y Mestiza, Produce Mulatto es Torna Atrás (From Spaniard and Mestiza, Produce a Mulatto Return Backwards). Juan Rodriguez Juarez, 1715.

16 The Casta Paintings De Español y Albina, Torna Atrás (From Spaniard and Albino, Return Backwards). Miguel Cabrera, De Español y Albina, Torna Atrás (From Spaniard and Albino, Return Backwards). Miguel Cabrera, 1763.

17 The Casta Paintings De Espanol y Chamiza, Barcino. El Agua (From Spaniard and Chamizo, Barcino. Water.) Anonymous, De Espanol y Chamiza, Barcino. El Agua (From Spaniard and Chamizo, Barcino. Water.) Anonymous,

18 The Casta Paintings De Mestizo y de India, Coyote — or "A mestizo and an Indian woman produce a coyote" Miguel Cabrera, 1763, Mexico De Mestizo y de India, Coyote — or "A mestizo and an Indian woman produce a coyote" Miguel Cabrera, 1763, Mexico

19 Grievances Included: Taxation without representation (does this sound familiar?) Taxation without representation (does this sound familiar?) Tribute system imposed upon Indians Tribute system imposed upon Indians Creoles wanted a role in government. Spain refused to make political concessions. Creoles wanted a role in government. Spain refused to make political concessions. Tight Spanish rule left no room for intellectual freedom or economic mobility. Tight Spanish rule left no room for intellectual freedom or economic mobility.

20 Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II is one of the most famous of the early colonial uprisings. Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II is one of the most famous of the early colonial uprisings. Began in Tinta, Peru in Began in Tinta, Peru in Túpac Amaru II led Indians in protest of the tribute system and the exploitation of the corregidores. Even whites and mestizos joined the rebellion. Túpac Amaru II led Indians in protest of the tribute system and the exploitation of the corregidores. Even whites and mestizos joined the rebellion. Resulted in Túpac Amaru’s execution, but the rebellion represents the early roots of the independence movements to follow. Resulted in Túpac Amaru’s execution, but the rebellion represents the early roots of the independence movements to follow. Which Túpac led the rebellion?

21 The 1810 Revolts 5 major revolts began in 1810, and though most failed, they eventually led to independence. 5 major revolts began in 1810, and though most failed, they eventually led to independence. Revolts began two years after Napoleon placed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Spanish throne (deposed Ferdinand VII) Revolts began two years after Napoleon placed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Spanish throne (deposed Ferdinand VII) By 1814, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. He proclaims absolutism in the colonies, leading to further grievances that provoke wars of independence. By 1814, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. He proclaims absolutism in the colonies, leading to further grievances that provoke wars of independence.

22 5 Revolts, 7 Leaders 1. Venezuela: Símon Bolívar and Francisco Miranda 2. New Granada: also led by Símon Bolívar. He promoted independence in the Cartagena Manifesto of Buenos Aires (Río de la Plata): José de San Martín 4. Chile: Bernardo O’Higgins 5. Mexico: Miguel Hidalgo, and José María Morelos

23 The Second Phase: Full-fledged independence movements After the second phase of the Spanish American Wars of Independence ended, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule. After the second phase of the Spanish American Wars of Independence ended, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule. New, independent nations emerged and the end of the wars including: Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina. New, independent nations emerged and the end of the wars including: Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina.

24 Bolívar and San Martín: Architects of Independence Símon Bolívar and José de San Martín are the two best known leaders in the South American Independence Wars. Símon Bolívar and José de San Martín are the two best known leaders in the South American Independence Wars. Bolívar was the great leader of the north. His forces liberated Venezuela, Colombia, and Bolivia by Bolívar was the great leader of the north. His forces liberated Venezuela, Colombia, and Bolivia by San Martín was his counterpart in the South. He helped Argentina gain independence in 1816, and Chile in San Martín was his counterpart in the South. He helped Argentina gain independence in 1816, and Chile in In 1824, Bolívar and San Martín cooperated to liberate Peru. Shortly thereafter, San Martín went into self-exile following a meeting with Bolívar at Guayaquil. In 1824, Bolívar and San Martín cooperated to liberate Peru. Shortly thereafter, San Martín went into self-exile following a meeting with Bolívar at Guayaquil.

25 The Liberator Símon Bolívar became known as “the Liberator,” for his role in liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru from Spanish rule. Today, he remains one of the most revered personas in Latin American history. He is seen by many as a Spanish American equivalent to George Washington, and is a symbol of Latin American nationalism. During his time, however, many compared Bolívar to Napoleon, and he was often though of as a dictator rather than a liberator.

26 The Jamaica Letter Why was Bolívar compared to Napoleon? If he was indeed a “liberator” then why was he disliked by many of his contemporaries? To find out more about his political philosophy, read Bolívar’s “Jamaica Letter.” This letter can be found in your “Online Study Center.” After you have read this letter, you decide.

27 The Aftermath By 1840, all of Latin America except Cuba and Puerto Rico had become independent. By 1840, all of Latin America except Cuba and Puerto Rico had become independent. The Central American provinces and Gran Colombia eventually fragmented into smaller nations. The Central American provinces and Gran Colombia eventually fragmented into smaller nations. The victories over the colonial regimes did not necessarily meet the expectations of the liberated and the liberators. The victories over the colonial regimes did not necessarily meet the expectations of the liberated and the liberators.

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29 The Economic Aftermath : Neocolonialism The wars severely damaged economies. The wars severely damaged economies. Fledgling nations had accumulated debt during the wars, and struggled to pay off high interest loans granted by Great Britain. Public revenue could not meet public expenditure. Fledgling nations had accumulated debt during the wars, and struggled to pay off high interest loans granted by Great Britain. Public revenue could not meet public expenditure. Political instability discouraged investment in the new nations. Political instability discouraged investment in the new nations. Spanish America did not industrialize like the U.S., and the U.K. because they lacked the necessary machinery, skilled labor, and capital. Spanish America did not industrialize like the U.S., and the U.K. because they lacked the necessary machinery, skilled labor, and capital. The United Kingdom replaced Spain as the premier economic influence. This phenomenon is known as neocolonialism. Neocolonialism represents only economic control, and not political control. The United Kingdom replaced Spain as the premier economic influence. This phenomenon is known as neocolonialism. Neocolonialism represents only economic control, and not political control.

30 The Political Aftermath : Centralist v. Federalist Liberal v. Conservative New republics faced difficulties in unifying because of the disparate political philosophies that emerged. New republics faced difficulties in unifying because of the disparate political philosophies that emerged. Leaders of the independence movements were typically Liberal. The first constitutions of the new nations were also drafted by Liberals, who favored a Federalist form of government. Leaders of the independence movements were typically Liberal. The first constitutions of the new nations were also drafted by Liberals, who favored a Federalist form of government. The political makeup in nations such as Mexico shifted from a liberal and federalist form of rule, to a conservative, centralist form of rule. The political makeup in nations such as Mexico shifted from a liberal and federalist form of rule, to a conservative, centralist form of rule. Civil wars ensued during the latter part of the 19 th Century as Liberals and Conservatives competed for power. Civil wars ensued during the latter part of the 19 th Century as Liberals and Conservatives competed for power.

31 Liberal v. Conservative Liberals favored Free trade Free trade Lowered tariffs Lowered tariffs Diminished role of Catholic Church Diminished role of Catholic Church Secular education Secular education Smaller military Smaller military Influenced by Enlightenment, and constitutions of United States, Great Britain, and France. Influenced by Enlightenment, and constitutions of United States, Great Britain, and France. Conservatives favored Restricted trade Restricted trade Higher tariffs Higher tariffs Strong presence of Catholic Church Strong presence of Catholic Church Church-run education Church-run education Strong military Strong military More likely to support presidential dictatorships and military rule. More likely to support presidential dictatorships and military rule.

32 Centralism v. Federalism Federalism: Provinces hold power: Provinces hold power: Promoted individualism Promoted individualism Centralism: Capital cities hold power Capital cities hold power Promoted paternalistic rule Promoted paternalistic rule

33 The Societal Aftermath The main benefactors of independence were the landed elite. These creoles, who governed the new nations, often forgot promises made to Indians and blacks who had fought in the revolutionary armies. The main benefactors of independence were the landed elite. These creoles, who governed the new nations, often forgot promises made to Indians and blacks who had fought in the revolutionary armies. Some slaves were freed as a reward for their military service, but slavery was not abolished. Some slaves were freed as a reward for their military service, but slavery was not abolished. Women gained few legal or political rights and were still denied citizenship and suffrage. Women gained few legal or political rights and were still denied citizenship and suffrage. Independence left Indian communities less protected than previously. Independence left Indian communities less protected than previously.


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