Presentation on theme: "The Bay of Pigs Invasion and The Cuban Missile Crisis"— Presentation transcript:
1The Bay of Pigs Invasion and The Cuban Missile Crisis Brinkmanship:The Bay of Pigs InvasionandThe Cuban Missile Crisis
2Cuban Revolution 1959- Castro seizes power Takes control of American-owned assets in CubaIncreases ties with Soviet Union
31960President Eisenhower agrees with plan by CIA to equip and train Cuban exiles in America and attempt to overthrow Castro1961New U.S. president Kennedy agrees with plan. Location for invasion is to be Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs).
4Invasion: April 15, 1961U.S. planes displaying Cuban revolutionary markings bombed Cuban airfieldsHowever, Castro had been forewarned of the attack by Soviet intelligence. So, he moved much of Cuba’s air force to another locationSecond wave of air strikes was cancelled because of U.S. embarrassment in UN that American planes were being used.
5April 17, 1961 1500 Cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs They expected to get assistance from the local population and make their way to Havana.However, no support and heavy resistance from the Cuban army using Soviet-supplied tanks and weaponsVast majority of the Cuban exiles are captured and imprisoned
6Aftermath Huge embarrassment for Kennedy The event made Castro even more popular in Cuba, increasing the feeling of Cuban nationalismCastro pursued even closer relations with Moscow and relations with the U.S. deteriorated.
7October, 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis Americans have placed missiles in Turkey.
8Unbeknownst to U.S., Khrushchev places Soviet missiles in Cuba. Why? Arms raceAmericans had already shown that they were interested in an invasion of Cuba (Bay of Pigs)Although the balance of weapon power rested with the U.S. (U.S. had about 8 times as many nuclear weapons as the Soviets) it was the location of these weapons that was a concern.
9October 14, 1962U.S. U2 spy plane finds evidence of missile site construction in CubaSome of the sites appear to be fully operational
10Kennedy Has 3 options: Surgical air strike of missile sites Invasion of the island nationNaval blockade of the island
11Joint Chiefs of Staff : Secretary of Defence, Robert McNamara: Unanimous agreement on invasionSecretary of Defence,Robert McNamara:Favours a blockadeKennedy:Believes Soviets will retaliate in Berlin to either an air strike or invasionSupports the blockade, but allows planning of air strikes to beginMeets with Soviet Foreign Affairs minister Andrei Gromyko who assures him there are no offensive weaponsHowever, Kennedy has the evidence
12The Blockade - Announces discovery of missiles in Cuba Oct. 22- Kennedy delivers address to the nation- Announces discovery of missiles in CubaPlaces naval blockade (but called a “quarantine” to avoid it being seen as an act of war) on Cuba to prevent further Soviet weapons shipments
13The Cold War Heats UpOct. 23- U.S. military put on world-wide DEFCON 3 alert(5 is peacetime; 1 is imminent attack)180 U.S. navy ships prepare to enforce quarantineU.S. evacuates personnel from base at GuantanamoOrganization of American States supports the quarantine
14Blockade Begins 10:00 am, Oct. 24 blockade goes into effect 19 Soviet ships are en route to CubaFrom Khrushchev: Soviet Union views the blockade as an act of aggression and their ships will be instructed to ignore it.16 turn back; 3 continueU.S. military alert moves to DEFCON 2 for the first time in history
15Meanwhile USSR shows no sign of backing down Kennedy begins to believe invasion of Cuba is the only alternativeAssumed that Soviets will respond to invasion, so plans for nuclear strike on Soviet Union are prepared
16Robert Kennedy:"We had not abandoned all hope, but what hope there was now rested with Khrushchev's revising his course within the next few hours. It was a hope, not an expectation. The expectation was military confrontation by Tuesday, and possibly tomorrow..."But talks continue betweenWashingtonand Moscow
17Secret NegotiationsOct. 27- Khrushchev suggests that Soviets will remove missiles from Cuba if U.S. removes theirs from TurkeyKennedy drafts a letter but does not mention Turkey (understanding that those missiles would be removed voluntarily in the immediate aftermath).
18October 28 The deal is accepted by Khrushchev Kennedy calls it "an important and constructive contribution to peace.”
19AftermathPartly over his dealing with the crisis, Khrushchev is soon replaced by BrezhnevU.S. military unhappy that invasion did not occur- tell Kennedy invasion is still necessaryCuba feels betrayed by the Soviets, whom they had trusted.Washington and Moscow create a direct communication telephone link to better solve such future crises