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The Bay of Pigs Invasion and The Cuban Missile Crisis

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1 The Bay of Pigs Invasion and The Cuban Missile Crisis
Brinkmanship: The Bay of Pigs Invasion and The Cuban Missile Crisis

2 Cuban Revolution 1959- Castro seizes power
Takes control of American-owned assets in Cuba Increases ties with Soviet Union

3 1960 President Eisenhower agrees with plan by CIA to equip and train Cuban exiles in America and attempt to overthrow Castro 1961 New U.S. president Kennedy agrees with plan. Location for invasion is to be Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs).

4 Invasion: April 15, 1961 U.S. planes displaying Cuban revolutionary markings bombed Cuban airfields However, Castro had been forewarned of the attack by Soviet intelligence. So, he moved much of Cuba’s air force to another location Second wave of air strikes was cancelled because of U.S. embarrassment in UN that American planes were being used.

5 April 17, 1961 1500 Cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs
They expected to get assistance from the local population and make their way to Havana. However, no support and heavy resistance from the Cuban army using Soviet-supplied tanks and weapons Vast majority of the Cuban exiles are captured and imprisoned

6 Aftermath Huge embarrassment for Kennedy
The event made Castro even more popular in Cuba, increasing the feeling of Cuban nationalism Castro pursued even closer relations with Moscow and relations with the U.S. deteriorated.

7 October, 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis
Americans have placed missiles in Turkey.

8 Unbeknownst to U.S., Khrushchev places Soviet missiles in Cuba. Why?
Arms race Americans had already shown that they were interested in an invasion of Cuba (Bay of Pigs) Although the balance of weapon power rested with the U.S. (U.S. had about 8 times as many nuclear weapons as the Soviets) it was the location of these weapons that was a concern.

9 October 14, 1962 U.S. U2 spy plane finds evidence of missile site construction in Cuba Some of the sites appear to be fully operational

10 Kennedy Has 3 options: Surgical air strike of missile sites
Invasion of the island nation Naval blockade of the island

11 Joint Chiefs of Staff : Secretary of Defence, Robert McNamara:
Unanimous agreement on invasion Secretary of Defence, Robert McNamara: Favours a blockade Kennedy: Believes Soviets will retaliate in Berlin to either an air strike or invasion Supports the blockade, but allows planning of air strikes to begin Meets with Soviet Foreign Affairs minister Andrei Gromyko who assures him there are no offensive weapons However, Kennedy has the evidence

12 The Blockade - Announces discovery of missiles in Cuba
Oct. 22- Kennedy delivers address to the nation - Announces discovery of missiles in Cuba Places naval blockade (but called a “quarantine” to avoid it being seen as an act of war) on Cuba to prevent further Soviet weapons shipments

13 The Cold War Heats Up Oct. 23- U.S. military put on world-wide DEFCON 3 alert (5 is peacetime; 1 is imminent attack) 180 U.S. navy ships prepare to enforce quarantine U.S. evacuates personnel from base at Guantanamo Organization of American States supports the quarantine

14 Blockade Begins 10:00 am, Oct. 24 blockade goes into effect
19 Soviet ships are en route to Cuba From Khrushchev: Soviet Union views the blockade as an act of aggression and their ships will be instructed to ignore it. 16 turn back; 3 continue U.S. military alert moves to DEFCON 2 for the first time in history

15 Meanwhile USSR shows no sign of backing down
Kennedy begins to believe invasion of Cuba is the only alternative Assumed that Soviets will respond to invasion, so plans for nuclear strike on Soviet Union are prepared

16 Robert Kennedy: "We had not abandoned all hope, but what hope there was now rested with Khrushchev's revising his course within the next few hours. It was a hope, not an expectation. The expectation was military confrontation by Tuesday, and possibly tomorrow..." But talks continue between Washington and Moscow

17 Secret Negotiations Oct. 27- Khrushchev suggests that Soviets will remove missiles from Cuba if U.S. removes theirs from Turkey Kennedy drafts a letter but does not mention Turkey (understanding that those missiles would be removed voluntarily in the immediate aftermath).

18 October 28 The deal is accepted by Khrushchev
Kennedy calls it "an important and constructive contribution to peace.”

19 Aftermath Partly over his dealing with the crisis, Khrushchev is soon replaced by Brezhnev U.S. military unhappy that invasion did not occur- tell Kennedy invasion is still necessary Cuba feels betrayed by the Soviets, whom they had trusted. Washington and Moscow create a direct communication telephone link to better solve such future crises

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