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A Brief History of Pine: Some Frequently Asked Questions Dr. Frank Dalton Pine Research Instrumentation Raleigh, North Carolina www.pineinst.com/echem.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Pine: Some Frequently Asked Questions Dr. Frank Dalton Pine Research Instrumentation Raleigh, North Carolina www.pineinst.com/echem."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of Pine: Some Frequently Asked Questions Dr. Frank Dalton Pine Research Instrumentation Raleigh, North Carolina

2

3 Our factory is located in Grove City PA Electrochemical Sales and R&D Office is in Raleigh NC Where is Pine located?

4 Question #3 Are you guys Electrochemists? Dr. Frank DaltonDr. Li Sun

5 Question #4 How did such a rural manufacturing company get into electrochemistry? Answer Historical Accident

6 Benjamin Levich It Began in Russia… Dr. Benjamin Levich pioneered the field of Hydrodynamic Electrochemistry in the 1950’s. He wrote a book called Physicochemical Hydrodynamics which was translated into English in 1964.

7 The book made its way from Moscow to Minnesota… University of Minnesota Benjamin Levich

8 During that same time period, Dr. John Albery from Oxford spent a summer in Minnesota… University of Minnesota Oxford University

9 Meeting of Minds in Minnesota Working in Dr. Bruckenstein’s lab were Dr. John Albery and two graduate students, Dennis Johnson & Duane Napp. During that time, they built Rotating Disk Electrodes and Rotating Ring-Disk Electrodes. Dr. Albery returned to Oxford and started a strong tradition of hydrodynamic voltammetry at that institution. (continued now by Dr. Richard Compton at Oxford). Dennis and Duane befriended an entrepreneurial under- graduate electrical engineering student named Ted Hines.

10 Nobody Stays Still for Very Long Ted Hines founded Pine Instrument Company

11 Rotating Disk Electrode & Rotating Ring-Disk Electrodes

12 Question #5 Do people still use the Rotating Disk Electrode? Answer Yes (amazingly) Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals & Applications, AJ Bard & LR Faulkner, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980

13 Present Day RDE Use Publications per Year

14 fig/c01/c01-f05b.jpg Everybody is Studying Fuel Cell Catalysts nuggets/1a.jpg

15 RRDE: Carbon disk, Platinum ring A platinum nanoparticle bearing film is coated on to the disk electrode

16 RRDE: Carbon disk, Platinum Ring High speed rotation of the electrode drives dissolved oxygen gas toward the electrode flow of dissolved O 2

17 James P. Collman, Richard A. Decréau, Chem. Commun., 2008, 5065 flow of dissolved O 2

18 flow of dissolved O 2 U.A. Paulus et al. : Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 495 (2001) 134–145 James P. Collman, Richard A. Decréau, Chem. Commun. (2008) 5065

19 Question #6 Does Pine Make Potentiostats? Answer Yes (we always have)

20 Several Generations of Bipotentiostat Designs Early 1980’s (AFRDE3 bipotentiostat) Late 1980’s (AFRDE4 bipotentiostat)

21 These Models from the 1990’s are Still Widely Used & Supported 1991 (AFRDE5 bipotentiostat) 1995 (AFCBP1 bipotentiostat)

22 Latest Models Portable USB Potentiostats 2008 (WaveNow Potentiostat) 2009 (WaveNano Potentiostat)

23 Question #7 How can you make such a small potentiostat? Answer Surface Mount Technology

24 The Old Way: Thru-Hole PCBs

25 The New Way: Surface Mount

26 Question #8 Why aren’t there any buttons on your potentiostat? Answer These days, it’s all about the software

27 Choose an Electroanalytical Technique…

28 Enter Technique Parameters

29 Monitor Experiments In Progress Queue Up Multiple Experiments

30 Analyze and Plot Results

31 AfterMath Data Organizer Software Maintain Sets of Related Data in Single Archive Works with All Pine Potentiostats Easy Data Exchange with Excel & Other Applications

32 Question #9 How do you take the portable potentiostat into the field?

33 Other Intelligent Electrochemists Solved this Problem a Long Time Ago…

34 Question #10 Can you use it in a glove box? Answer Yes (using a wireless USB hub)

35 Question #11 What was that cute electrochemical cell on that earlier slide? Answer Student Voltammetry Cell with Disposable Patterned Electrodes What’s that?

36 The Cell is a 20 mL Disposable Vial The Patterned Electrodes are also Disposable

37

38 Question #7 How do you make the patterned electrodes? Answer The Same Way you Make T-Shirts

39 Mass Produced Electrodes The same technology used to make college T-shirts is also used to make electrochemical biosensors. Screen Printing is used to produce billions of disposable biosensor electrodes per year

40 Screen-Printed Electrodes for Blood Glucose Detection

41 Wireless Biosensing (a live demonstration) TARGET MOLECULE Acetaminophen

42 Wireless Biosensing (a live demonstration) Free Souvenir !


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