Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Pine: Some Frequently Asked Questions Dr. Frank Dalton Pine Research Instrumentation Raleigh, North Carolina www.pineinst.com/echem."— Presentation transcript:
A Brief History of Pine: Some Frequently Asked Questions Dr. Frank Dalton Pine Research Instrumentation Raleigh, North Carolina
Our factory is located in Grove City PA Electrochemical Sales and R&D Office is in Raleigh NC Where is Pine located?
Question #3 Are you guys Electrochemists? Dr. Frank DaltonDr. Li Sun
Question #4 How did such a rural manufacturing company get into electrochemistry? Answer Historical Accident
Benjamin Levich It Began in Russia… Dr. Benjamin Levich pioneered the field of Hydrodynamic Electrochemistry in the 1950’s. He wrote a book called Physicochemical Hydrodynamics which was translated into English in 1964.
The book made its way from Moscow to Minnesota… University of Minnesota Benjamin Levich
During that same time period, Dr. John Albery from Oxford spent a summer in Minnesota… University of Minnesota Oxford University
Meeting of Minds in Minnesota Working in Dr. Bruckenstein’s lab were Dr. John Albery and two graduate students, Dennis Johnson & Duane Napp. During that time, they built Rotating Disk Electrodes and Rotating Ring-Disk Electrodes. Dr. Albery returned to Oxford and started a strong tradition of hydrodynamic voltammetry at that institution. (continued now by Dr. Richard Compton at Oxford). Dennis and Duane befriended an entrepreneurial under- graduate electrical engineering student named Ted Hines.
Nobody Stays Still for Very Long Ted Hines founded Pine Instrument Company
Rotating Disk Electrode & Rotating Ring-Disk Electrodes
Question #5 Do people still use the Rotating Disk Electrode? Answer Yes (amazingly) Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals & Applications, AJ Bard & LR Faulkner, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980
Present Day RDE Use Publications per Year
fig/c01/c01-f05b.jpg Everybody is Studying Fuel Cell Catalysts nuggets/1a.jpg
RRDE: Carbon disk, Platinum ring A platinum nanoparticle bearing film is coated on to the disk electrode
RRDE: Carbon disk, Platinum Ring High speed rotation of the electrode drives dissolved oxygen gas toward the electrode flow of dissolved O 2
James P. Collman, Richard A. Decréau, Chem. Commun., 2008, 5065 flow of dissolved O 2
flow of dissolved O 2 U.A. Paulus et al. : Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 495 (2001) 134–145 James P. Collman, Richard A. Decréau, Chem. Commun. (2008) 5065
Question #6 Does Pine Make Potentiostats? Answer Yes (we always have)
Several Generations of Bipotentiostat Designs Early 1980’s (AFRDE3 bipotentiostat) Late 1980’s (AFRDE4 bipotentiostat)
These Models from the 1990’s are Still Widely Used & Supported 1991 (AFRDE5 bipotentiostat) 1995 (AFCBP1 bipotentiostat)
Question #7 How can you make such a small potentiostat? Answer Surface Mount Technology
The Old Way: Thru-Hole PCBs
The New Way: Surface Mount
Question #8 Why aren’t there any buttons on your potentiostat? Answer These days, it’s all about the software
Choose an Electroanalytical Technique…
Enter Technique Parameters
Monitor Experiments In Progress Queue Up Multiple Experiments
Analyze and Plot Results
AfterMath Data Organizer Software Maintain Sets of Related Data in Single Archive Works with All Pine Potentiostats Easy Data Exchange with Excel & Other Applications
Question #9 How do you take the portable potentiostat into the field?
Other Intelligent Electrochemists Solved this Problem a Long Time Ago…
Question #10 Can you use it in a glove box? Answer Yes (using a wireless USB hub)
Question #11 What was that cute electrochemical cell on that earlier slide? Answer Student Voltammetry Cell with Disposable Patterned Electrodes What’s that?
The Cell is a 20 mL Disposable Vial The Patterned Electrodes are also Disposable
Question #7 How do you make the patterned electrodes? Answer The Same Way you Make T-Shirts
Mass Produced Electrodes The same technology used to make college T-shirts is also used to make electrochemical biosensors. Screen Printing is used to produce billions of disposable biosensor electrodes per year
Screen-Printed Electrodes for Blood Glucose Detection
Wireless Biosensing (a live demonstration) TARGET MOLECULE Acetaminophen
Wireless Biosensing (a live demonstration) Free Souvenir !