Presentation on theme: "Psychological First Aid"— Presentation transcript:
1Psychological First Aid Kathleen C. Norbut, M.Ed., LMHCCoordinator, MRC Western MA
2Logistics and Housekeeping Location of restroomsEmergency exits (if appropriate)Cell phone/pager etiquetteRegistration/sign-in sheetEvaluation forms
3Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this course, participants will be able to:Identify the basic objectives and intervention strategies of Psychological First Aid.Gain skills needed to implement the intervention strategies of Psychological First Aid.Adapt Psychological First Aid in diverse settings and with different populations.Appreciate the importance of providing Psychological First Aid in the aftermath of disaster.Gain confidence in implementing Psychological First Aid in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.Identify ways to enhance provider care before, during, and after disaster care.
6How Do We Know How to Respond Following Disasters?
7Five Empirically-Supported Early Intervention Principles
8What is Psychological First Aid? PFA is:An evidence-informed modular approach to assist children, adolescents, adults, and families in the immediate aftermath of disaster and terrorism.
9What are PFA’s Principle Actions? PFA’s principle actions are to:Establish safety and securityConnect to restorative resourcesReduce stress-related reactionsFoster adaptive short- and long-term copingEnhance natural resilience (rather than preventing long-term pathology)
10Who Delivers PFA?PFA is delivered by disaster response workers who provide early assistance, including:First respondersMental health professionalsSchool personnelReligious professionalsDisaster volunteersHealth and public health officials
11Psychological First Aid Core Actions (Dr. Blanck video click above) 1Contact and Engagement2Safety and Comfort3Stabilization4Information Gathering5Practical Assistance6Connection with Social Supports7Information on Coping8Linkage with Collaborative Services
12Provider Care: Management Mandated rotation where workers are moved from the most highly exposed assignments to varied levels of exposureEnforced support by providing/encouraging:Regular supervisionRegular case conferencesPeer partners and peer consultation
13Provider Care: Management (cont.) Monitor providers who meet certain high risk criteriaConduct trainings on stress management practices
14Provider Care: Personal Limit daily numbers of most severe casesUtilize the buddy system to share distressing emotional responsesUse benefit time, vacation, personal timeAccess supervision routinelyPractice stress management during the workdayStay aware of limitations and needs
15Provider Care: Personal (cont.) Providers should make every effort to avoid:Working too long by themselves without checking inWorking “around the clock” with few breaksFeeling like they are not doing enoughExcessive intake of sweets and caffeine
16Provider Care: Personal (cont.) Common attitudinal obstacles to self-care:“It would be selfish to take time to rest.”“Others are working around the clock, so should I.”“The needs of survivors are more important then the needs of helpers.”“I can contribute the most by working all the time.”“Only I can do x, y, and z.”
17Provider Care: Following Disaster Response Expect a readjustment period upon returning homeDiscuss the situation with coworkers and managementParticipate in formal help if extreme stress persistsAsk help in parenting, if you feel irritable or have difficulties adjusting
18Provider Care: Following Disaster Response (cont.) Prepare for worldview changes that may not be mirrored by others in your lifeIncrease experiences that have spiritual or philosophical meaning to youAlways remember to keep First Things First and take care of You
19Core Action #1: Contact and Engagement Establish a connection with survivors in a non-intrusive and compassionate mannerIntroduce yourself and describe your roleAsk for permission to talkExplain objectivesAsk about immediate needs
20Core Action #2: Safety and Comfort The goal is to enhance immediate and ongoing safety and provide physical and emotional comfort
21Acutely Bereaved Individuals Core Action #2: Safety and ComfortAcutely Bereaved IndividualsListen carefully with sympathyBe informed about cultural normsKnow that grief reactions vary from person to personHelp family members to respect differences in grieving
22Grief and Spiritual Issues Core Action #2: Safety and ComfortGrief and Spiritual IssuesAsk survivors if they have religious/spiritual needsRefer them to a clergy member of their choiceDo not judge, contradict, or correct what they say about their religious beliefsIf survivors want to pray, help them find a suitable place
23Core Action #3: Stabilization The goal is to calm and orient emotionally-overwhelmed and distraught survivors
24Signs a Person May Need Stabilization Core Action #3: StabilizationSigns a Person May Need StabilizationGlassy eyed and vacantUnresponsiveDisorientedExhibiting strong emotional responsesUncontrollable physical reactionsFrantic searching behavior
25Grounding Ask the person to: Listen to and look at you Core Action #3: StabilizationGroundingAsk the person to:Listen to and look at youOrient him/herself to the surroundingsTalk about the aspect of the situation that is under control, hopeful, or positiveBreathe in and out slowly and deeplyName five non-distressing things he/she can see, hear, and feel
26Core Action #4: Information Gathering The goal is to identify immediate needs and concerns, gather additional information, and tailor PFA interventionsIt is used to determine:Need for immediate referralNeed for any additional available ancillary servicesWhich components of PFA may be helpful
27Core Action #5: Practical Assistance Offer practical help to survivors in addressing immediate needs and concernsIdentify the most immediate needClarify the needDiscuss an action responseAct to address the need
28Core Action #6: Connection with Social Support The goal is to help establish brief or ongoing contacts with primary support persons, such as family members and friends, and to seek out other sources of support
29Core Action #7: Information on Coping Provide information about stress reactions and coping to reduce distress and promote adaptive functioningExplain what is currently known about the eventInform survivors of available resourcesIdentify the post-disaster reactions and how to manage themPromote and support self-care and family care practices
30Core Action #8: Linkage with Collaborative Services The goal is to link survivors with available services needed immediately or in the future
31Agencies Providing Services Core Action #8: Linkage with Collaborative ServicesAgencies Providing ServicesReconnect survivors to agencies that provided them services before the disaster:Mental health servicesMedical servicesSpiritual supportAlternative healersChild welfare servicesSchoolsDrug and alcohol support groups
32Group activities – Scenarios and Discussion Handout scenarios to each table….request that the group discusses the four questions and choose someone to be the spokesperson for the group. ~20-30 minutes
33THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE! Be well, Be safeFirst Things FirstEasy Does ItComfort, Care, Safety, Stabilization, SecurityUse the “buddy system”THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE!