2Geography of GreeceGreece is situated at the most southeastern part of Europe, located between the 34° and 42° parallel N., with a meridional extent from 19° to 28° E.Greece extends over 131,940 square kilometers (51,146 sq. miles). Greece consists of a mainland area of 106,778 square kilometers and thousands of islands large and small, covering a further 25,179 square kilometers. There are 3,053 islands in Greece of which some 200 are inhabited.
3Geography of Greece (2)Greece is mainly bordered by sea, to the west with the Ionian Sea, to the east with the Aegean Sea and to the south with the Mediterranean Sea.Greece has also land borders to the east with Turkey (206 km) and to the north with Albania (246,70 km.), Bulgaria (494 km) and FYROM (256,31 km).
4History Ancient times Advanced early civilizations emerged in Greece Cycladic on the Aegean Islands, Minoan in Crete, Mycenaean on the mainlandCity- States Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Macedonia across the Greek peninsulaCity States spread to the shores of Black Sea, South Italy and Asia MinorUnprecedented cultural boom expressed in Architecture, Drama, Science, Philosophy, PoliticsDemocracy Classical era (5th – 4th century B.C.)Athens and Sparta repelled the Persian Empire in a series of battlesMacedonia under Alexander the Great united Greeks and led them victorious over the PersiansHellenistic era (3rd -2nd century B.C.)After the death of Alexander the GreatGreeks moving to Alexandria, Antioch, Seleucia and many new Hellenistic cities in Asia and Africa founded in Alexander’s wake146 B.C
5History (2) Constantinople –Istanbul, capital Byzantine Empire (330AD-1453)Constantinople –Istanbul, capitalMixture of Hellenistic and Roman culturesMajor cultural and military power until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman TurksCohesion of the Orthodox Greeks and formation of Modern Greek identity under the Ottoman systemTurkish occupation for 400 yearsGreek War of Independence ( )Greek state recognized in 1827 (London Protocol)Independence day the 25th March, day the war against the Turks started
6History (3)20th CenturyAftermath of WWI, fight against Turkish nationalists of Mustafa Kemal.(1922 -Treaty of Lausanne) Following this treaty…Massive population exchange between Greece and TurkeyHundreds of Greeks died during this period (Pontic genocide)October 1940 Fascist Italy demanded surrender of Greece.Greco-Italian War repelled Italian forces to AlbaniaFirst victory of the Allies over the Axis forces on European land1941 country fell to German forces – Battle of GreeceThousands of civilians died of starvationEntire Jewish population deported to Nazi camps21st April 1967 a coup d’e΄tat brings a 7 year junta backed by the United States17 November 1973 the uprising of the Athens Polytechnic20 July 1974 Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus and the regime collapsesAugust 1974 Metapolitefsi era (switch to democratic political system)January 1981 Greece became the 10th member of the European Communities2001 the country adopted the Euro2004 successfully hosted the Athens Olympic games
7Greek National Symbols The national Flag of Greece consists of nine horizontal stripes of equal width, five blue and four white alternately, the first and last stripes being blue.In the upper left corner is a blue square containing a white cross, which occupies the first five stripes.The Greek flag is hoisted on a white flagstaff at the top of which there is a white cross.
8National Anthem of Greece – Hymn to Liberty The National Anthem of Greece consists of the first two verses of the “Hymn to Freedom”. The “Hymn to Freedom” was written by the poet Dionysios Solomos in a single month, May 1823, in Zakynthos (Zante) amidst the war of Independence. The Greek National Anthem is the only national anthem to extol freedom.To listen to the anthem press here
9Greek PopulationPopulation of Greece is (July 2006 est.): 10,688,058 million. Ten percent (10%) of the population are immigrants.Growth rate: 0.18%.Languages: Greek 99% (official); Turkish, others. Albanian is spoken by approximately 700,000 Albanian immigrants. English is the predominant second language.Religions: Greek Orthodox (approximately 98% of citizens), with Muslim (1.3%), Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and other religious communities.Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--97.5%. All levels are free.Health: Infant mortality rate--5.43/1,000. Life expectancy--male years, female years.Work force: 4.72 million.
10Greek languageThe Greek language forms a distinct branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It has a written tradition going back 3,500 years, and has been written using the Greek alphabet since the 9th century BC.Greece is relatively homogeneous in linguistic terms, with majority of the native population using Greek as their first or only language. The Muslim minority in Thrace (approximately 0.95% of the population), consists of speakers of Turkish, Bulgarian (Pomak) and Romani. Romani is also spoken by Christian Roma in other parts of the country.Modern Greek is a living tongue and one of the richest surviving languages, with more than 600,000 words.
11Greek lexiconYou want to learn Greek and you believe it will all be Greek to you? Well then, I'm going to show you that for starters you already know a quite substantial number of Greek words you use every day while speaking English or even your own language. What about the Greek words you use at school or College? School subjects would be a category themselves.Scientific and medical terms would be another one.School Subjects: school, problem, idioms, mathematics, arithmetic, geometry, geography, history, physics, music, choir, biology, gymnastics, grammar, geology, mythology, philosophy, psychology, poetry, archaeology, astronomyMedical and Scientific terms: cardiology, atrophy, amnesia, analogy, anaemia, dialysis, diagnosis, orthopaedic, leukemia, meningitis, menopause, asthma, paranoia, paraplegia,, psychiatry, architecture, aeronautics, technology, mechanic. more
12Cities in GreeceAthens is the capital of Greece. The population of Athens isOther major cities in Greece are:Thessaloniki-second major city (pop. 1,057,825)Piraeus (880,529)Patras (170,452)Heraklion (132,117)Larissa (113,090)You’ll discover something different in whichever Greek city you choose to visit. Greek cities are the living cells of Greek society, each with its own local colour, the result of its unique history. The seasonal transformations from summer to winter make every visit a different, unique experience.Each of the cities of Greece, scattered throughout the country, has its own character, its own particular reflection of many centuries of Greek history.
13Economy of GreeceGreece is a developed country, a member of the European Union since 1981, a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union since 2001, and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) since 1961.Shipping and tourism are the dominant industries of Greece. The country's merchant ship fleet is one of the largest in the world.
14Political System of Greece The political system of Greece, as defined by the Constitution of Greece, is that of a parliamentary democracy.The Prime Minister and the cabinet are at the top of the executive power and the government presupposes the majority in the Greek Parliament.
17Greek salad Directions 1. Chop the tomatoes into medium pieces. 2. Slice the onions.3. Slice the cucumber.4. Cut a couple of strips from the green pepper.5. Place the tomatoes, onions, cucumber in a large bowl and mix them well.6. Pour some olive oil over the mix.7. Add the olives (Black Olives are best for this salad).8. Add salt and pepper to taste.9. Cut Feta cheese into medium sized pieces and place them over the salad.10. Add a little bit more oil and sprinkle some oregano over the feta.
18Tzatziki Tzatziki (appetiser) Ingredients 1 Cucumber 3 cloves of garlic2 cups of yogurt (drained)Olive OilDillSalt (optional)Pepper (optional)Vinegar (optional)
19Tzatziki (directions) 1. Peel and seed the cucumber.2. Chop cucumber to very small pieces.3. Place cucumber pieces in a colander and allow 15 minutes for them to dry.4. Squash the cucumber pieces dry in the colander.5. Crush 3 cloves of garlic into pulp.6. Very finely chop up some dill.7. In a bowl, mix together cucumber, crushed garlic, 2 cups of yogurt, chopped dill and 1 teaspoon of olive oil.8. Add a little salt, pepper and vinegar to taste (optional).9. Serve from the bowl.19
20Fasolada (Bean soup) Ingredients Pepper 1/2Kg (1 lb) dried beans Salt 1/3 cup olive oil1 can tomato juice2 tablespoons tomato pasteCelery3 carrots3 onions
21Fasolada (directions) 1. Wash the beans and soak them for a day or night.2. Drain the water and rinse well under running water.3. Put the beans in a large pot filled with enough water to cover the beans and boil, covered, for about 30 ‘4. Drain the beans and return them to the pot, fill the pot with enough water to barely cover the beans.5. Chop onions, celery and carrots and add them to the pot, along with 1/3 cup of olive oil.7. When the beans are soft, add salt, pepper, tomato paste, 1 can of tomatoes and stir.8. Boil for an additional 20 minutes.9. Remove from heat and serve hot.21
22Spanakopita (spinach pie) Ingredients5 leaks4-5 eggs2 kg [4.4 lb] fresh spinach1/2 kg [1 lb] feta cheese1/2 kg [1 lb] spring onionsPuff pastry or phyllo pastry1 cup dill1/4 cup rice1 cup olive oil1 cube beef stock
23Spanakopita (Directions) 1. Clean and wash the spinach. Sprinkle with salt and let it lay to remove as much water as possible.2. Cut the onions, leaks and dill and set aside.3. In a large pot cook the onion in the oil. When the onions are pale add the spinach and leaks and simmer stirring constantly until the spinach is wilted.4. Add the dill. Add the rice. Season with salt and pepper and cook for a little longer.5. Add the feta cheese and the eggs and mix well.6. Arrange the phyllo pastry in an oiled baking pan and pour in the spinach mixture.7. Cover with the remaining pastry sheets.9. Bake in a moderate oven 180C for about 30’23
24Greek souvlakiFavorite taste combinations: When fixing this recipe for Pork Souvlaki at home, I always figure on at least 3/4 of a pound of meat per person because these are such favorites. But that's a lot of meat - so side dishes are kept pretty minimal. We enjoy these with fried potatoes, a classic Greek salad, some great crusty country bread, and tzatziki.24
25Greek souvlakiIt's time to fire up the grill (if you haven't already) - and get your souvlaki on!Souvlaki (say: soov-LAH-kee) - skewered kebabs - is one of those foods that have become synonymous with Greece, as popular with Greeks as they are with non-Greeks. Souvlaki is a favorite street food on the skewer or in pita wraps, and a family favorite at home, cooked on the grill. A quick marinade of herbs, spices, oil, and wine (or vinegar) is all that's needed.Of all the versions of souvlaki, pork is the most frequently used meat. This is an easy recipe to make, and even easier to eat. Make the skewers with small pieces of meat to recreate a classic Greek street food, or make them large for a meal.
27Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great was born in 356 B.C. in Pella, Macedonia. He was son of Philip of Macedon, King of Macedonia.He was an excellent general and organizer. He created one of the largest empires in ancient history.Alexander is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, and is remembered for his tactical ability, his conquests, and for spreading Greek civilization into the East.His reign marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Age.
28Greek philosophersAristotle ( BC) pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander established the western scientific method and logic - theory follows empirical observation. He wrote books about physics, poetry, zoology, biology, politics, governments, and more.Democritus ( B.C.) : Developed an atomic theory of the universe.Plato ( B.C) student of Socrates who carried on his work. He gathered Socrates’ ideas and wrote them down. His most famous book is The Republic. Founded the world’s 1st university, the Academy in Athens in 386. Socrates ( B.C.) – His search for ethical knowledge and challenge of conventional mores led to his trial and execution.
29Greek mathematiciansArchimedes ( B.C.) – Greek mathematician, engineer, and physicist.He designed a machine, called the Archimedean screw, which could make water flow uphill. His design has been used for almost 2,000 years, to take water from rivers to the fields. Archimedes was able to tell fool's gold from real gold. He is known for his exclamation EUREKA!!! Euclid (Third century B.C.) Greek mathematician who applied the deductive principles of logic to geometry, creating the fundamentals of modern geometry. Pythagoras (About 6th century B.C.) – Greek philosopher and mathematician who discovered the Pythagorean Theorem on right angled- triangles.
30Hippocrates of Cos and Homer Hippocrates of Cos ( 460 BC – 370 BC) – An ancient Greek physician.He is one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine and the Western father of medicine due to his lasting contributions to medicine as the founder of the Hippocratic School of medicine.His emphasis was on prognosis.He is attributed the Hippocratic Oath, a document on the ethics of medical practice. moreHomer is a legendary ancient Greek epic poet, considered to be the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.Scholars place “Homer date” to the time of the poems' conception as much as to the lifetime of an individual.Those who believe that the Homeric poems developed gradually over a long period of time, generally consider the poems became fixed texts in only the 6th century.
31PericlesPericles (495–429 BC) was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.Pericles promoted the arts and literature; this was a chief reason Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural centre of the ancient Greek world.He started a project that built most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis. This project beautified the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people.Pericles fostered Athenian Democracy.
32George Papanikolaou( ) He first reported that uterine cancer could be diagnosed by means of a vaginal smear in 1928, but the importance of his work was not recognized until the publication, together with Herbert Traut, of 'Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear' in 1943.He became known for his invention of Papanicolaou's test, now known as the Pap smear or Pap test, which is used worldwide for the detection and prevention of cervical cancer
33Mikis TheodorakisMikis Theodorakis is one of the most popular song writers & composers.He is particularly well known for his songs and for his scores in the films Zorba the Greek.Politically, a leftist himself he identified with the left.Known for his struggles for Democracy, he was repeatedly imprisoned.To watch the last scene of Zorba the Greek press :here (mp4 video) orhere (mp2 video)
34Evangelos Papathanasiou - Vangelis He was born in 1943; a Greek composer under the artist name Vangelis .He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots of Fire, and scores for the films Blade Runner and1492: Conquest of Paradise.Vangelis composed music scores for Opéra sauvage, and Chariots of Fire.In a career spanning over 47 years, writing and composing more than 40 albums, Vangelis is generally regarded by music critics as one of the greatest composers of electronic music of all timeTo listen to the theme for the film Chariots of Fire press here
35Aristotle Onassis Aristotle Sokratis (15 January 1906 – 15 March 1975) He was a very prominent Greek shipping magnate of the 20th century.Some sources claim he was born in 1900 but that he later changed his date of birth so as to avoid deportation from Turkey.
36El GrecoDomenico Theotokopoulos, A painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish renaissanceHe was born in Crete, He studied in Venice and Rome where he enriched his style with elements of Mannerism. In Toledo, Spain he lived and worked until his death where he produced his best known paintings.El Greco is regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism. He has been characterized as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting
37Telly SavalasAristotelis “Telly” Savalas ( ). An American film and television actor and singer, whose career spanned four decades.Best known for playing the title role in the 1970s crime drama Kojak, Savalas was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Birdman of Alcatraz (1962).During these four decades he got many other movie credits.
38Maria CallasMaria Callas (1923 –1977) an American –born Greek soprano who combined an impressive bel canto technique with great dramatic gifts.Her repertoire ranged from classical opera to the bel canto operas and, in her early career, the music dramas.Her remarkable musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as La Divina.Her artistic achievements, were such that Leonard Bernstein called her "The Bible of opera", and her influence so enduring that, in 2006, Opera News wrote of her, "Nearly thirty years after her death, she's still the definition of the diva as artist and still one of classical music's best.To watch Maria Kallas sing Carmen press:here (mp4 video) or here (mp2 video)
39Nana MouskouriNana Mouskouri was born in 1934 in Crete, Greece. She is a singer who is confirmed to have sold over 300 million records worldwide in a career spanning over five decades, making her one of the best-selling artists and highest selling female artist of all time.She has recorded in many different languages, including Greek, French, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, and Welsh.To listen to Mouskouri sing Xatzidakis press here
40Nikos Kazantzakis( ) was the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th c.Yet he became well known globally after the 1964 release of the film Zorba the Greek, based on Kazantzakis' novel.He lived in Paris and Berlin ,Italy, Russia , Spain ,Cyprus, Aegina, Egypt, Mount Sinai, Nice, Japan Czechoslovakia and China.In 1957, he lost the Nobel Prize to Albert Camus by one vote. Camus later said that Kazantzakis deserved the honour "a hundred times more" than himself.
42OUNESCO sites in Greece Acropolis, Athens In the 2nd half of the 5th century BC, Athens, following the victory against the Persians and the establishment of democracy, took a leading position amongst the city-states of Greece.In the age that followed, as thought and art flourished, an exceptional group of artists put into effect the ambitious plans Pericles and, under the inspired guidance of the sculptor Pheidias, transformed the rocky hill into a unique monument of thought and the arts.The most important monuments : the Parthenon, the Erechtheon, the Propylaea - the monumental entrance to the Acropolis, and the small temple Athena Nike.
43OUNESCO sites in Greece Sanctuary of Asklepios, Epidaurus In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed during the 6th c. BC, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus.Its principal monuments, particularly the temple of Asklepios, the Tholos and the Theatre - considered one of the purest masterpieces of Greek architecture – date from the 4th century.The vast site, with its temples and hospital buildings devoted to its healing gods, provides valuable insight into the healing cults of Greek and Roman times.
44OUNESCO sites in Greece Delphi The pan-Hellenic sanctuary of Delphi, where the oracle of Apollo spoke, was the site of the omphalos, the 'navel of the world'.Blending harmoniously with the superb landscape and charged with sacred meaning, Delphi in the 6th century B.C. was indeed the religious centre and symbol of unity of the ancient Greek world.
45OUNESCO sites in Greece Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassae This famous temple to the god of healing and the sun was built towards the middle of the 5th century B.C. in the lonely heights of the Arcadian mountains.The temple, which has the oldest Corinthian capital yet found, combines the Archaic style and the serenity of the Doric style with some daring architectural features
46OUNESCO sites in Greece Vergina The city of Aigai, the ancient first capital of the Kingdom of Macedonia, was discovered in the 19th century near Vergina, in northern Greece.The most important remains are the monumental palace, lavishly decorated with mosaics and painted stuccoes, and the burial ground with more than 300 tumuli, some of which date from the 11th c. B.C.One of the royal tombs in the Great Tumulus is identified as that of Philip II, who conquered all the Greek cities, paving the way for his son Alexander and the expansion of the Hellenistic world.
47OUNESCO sites in Greece Olympia The site of Olympia, in a valley in the Peloponnesus, has been inhabited since prehistoric times.In the 10th century B.C., Olympia became a centre for the worship of Zeus. The Altis – the sanctuary to the gods – has one of the highest concentrations of masterpieces from the ancient Greek world.In addition to temples, there are the remains of all the sports structures erected for the Olympic Games, held in Olympia every four years beginning in 776 B.C.
48OUNESCO sites in Greece Mycenae & Tiryns The archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns are the imposing ruins of the two greatest cities of the Mycenaean civilization in the Peloponnesus, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean world from the 15th to the 12th century B.C. and played a vital role in the development of classical Greek culture.These two cities are linked to the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
49OUNESCO sites in Greece Delos According to Greek mythology, Apollo was born on this tiny island in the Cyclades archipelago.Apollo's sanctuary attracted pilgrims from all over Greece and Delos was a prosperous trading port.The island bears traces of the succeeding civilizations in the Aegean world, from the 3rd millennium B.C. to the palaeochristian era.The archaeological site is exceptionally extensive and rich and conveys the image of a great cosmopolitan Mediterranean port.
50OUNESCO sites in Greece city of Rhodes The Order of St John of Jerusalem occupied Rhodes from 1309 to 1523 and transformed the city into a stronghold. It subsequently came under Turkish and Italian rule. With the Palace of the Grand Masters, the Great Hospital and the Street of the Knights, the Upper Town is one of the most beautiful urban ensembles of the Gothic period. In the Lower Town, Gothic architecture coexists with mosques, public baths and other buildings dating from the Ottoman period
51OUNESCO sites in Greece old town of Corfu The Old Town of Corfu, on the Island of Corfu off the western coasts of Albania and Greece, is located in a strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea.It has its roots in the 8th century BC. The three forts of the town were used to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire.The mainly neoclassical housing stock of the Old Town is partly from the Venetian period, partly of later construction.As a fortified Mediterranean port, Corfu’s urban and port ensemble is notable for its high level of integrity and authenticity.
52OUNESCO sites in Greece Mystras The city of Mystras, the 'wonder of the Morea‘ (Peloponnese ), was built as an amphitheatre around the fortress erected in 1249 by the prince of Achaia, William of Villehardouin.Reconquered by the Byzantines, then occupied by the Turks and the Venetians, the city was abandoned in 1832, leaving only the breathtaking medieval ruins, standing in a beautiful landscape.
53OUNESCO sites in Greece Daphni, Hosios Loukas, Nea Moni of Chios Monasteries Although geographically distant from each other, these three monasteries (the 1st is, near Athens, the 2nd near Delphi, and the 3rd on an Aegean Sea island, near Asia Minor) belong to the same typological series and share the same aesthetic characteristics.The churches are built on a cross-in-square plan with a large dome supported by squinches defining an octagonal space.In the 11th and 12th centuries they were decorated with superb marble works as well as mosaics on a gold background, all characteristic of the 'second golden age of Byzantine art'.
54OUNESCO sites in Greece Monuments of Thessaloniki Founded in 315 B.C., the provincial capital and sea port of Thessaloniki was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity.Among its Christian monuments are fine churches, some built on the Greek cross plan and others on the three-nave basilica plan.Constructed over a long period, from the 4th to the 15th century, they constitute a diachronic typological series, which had considerable influence in the Byzantine world.The mosaics of the rotunda, St Davidand St Demetrius are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art.
55OUNESCO sites in Greece Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos Many civilizations have inhabited this small Aegean island, near Asia Minor, since the 3rd millennium B.C.The remains of Pythagoreion, an ancient fortified port with Greek and Roman monuments and a spectacular tunnel-aqueduct, as well as the Heraion, temple of the Samian Hera, can still be seen.
56OUNESCO sites in Greece Patmos Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint John "the Theologian" and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos.The small island of Pátmos in the Dodecanese is reputed to be where St John the Theologian wrote both his Gospel and the Apocalypse.A monastery dedicated to the ‘beloved disciple’ was founded there in the late 10th century and it has been a place of pilgrimage and Greek Orthodox learning ever since.The fine monastic complex dominates the island. The old settlement of Chorá, associated with it, contains many religious and secular buildings.
58Greek products (1)Feta is a traditionally sheep's milk cheese made in Greece. Varying amounts of goats’ milk may be added, as long as goat milk makes up less than 30% of the total mixture. Since 2005, feta has been a protected designation of origin product in the European Union. Traditional feta cheese should only include sheep and goat's milkOlive oilGreece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. It is the world's top producer of black olives. It has more varieties of olives than any other country.Greece holds third place in world olive production 82% of which is extra-virgin.
59Greek products (2)Ouzo is the world famous Greek aperitif. It is produced from distilled alcohol, water and aromatic ingredients (the prevailing one being aniseed). It is drunk straight or with the addition of water or ice and is the perfect accompaniment for appetizers. Ouzo drinking is an art. Or maybe it's a way of life, the Greek way of life.Honey is famous over the world for its good quality, aroma and outstanding taste. It owes its wide diversity in taste and aroma to the rich Greek flora which comprises a large number of wild flowers. Honey in Greece is mainly flower-honey from the nectar of fruit and citrus trees, thyme honey, with incomparable aroma, and pine honey from conifer trees.
60Greek products (3)Masticha is a 100% Greek product. It is not produced in any other part of the world except in the southern part of the island of Chios in the 24 villages known as "Mastichochoria" ("the mastic villages"). The product comes from the mastic trees and has pharmaceutical, industrial and cosmetic applications.Greek coffee To make Greek coffee, use a very small coffee cup and measure into the pot as many cupfuls of water as you wish to serve. Add a teaspoon of sugar for each cup of water and put to boil. Then add a heaped teaspoon of ground Greek coffee for each cup of water. Let the coffee boil to the brim of the pot and serve immediately. The coffee is served pouring a little at a time into each cup, so that the froth is equally divided.
61Greek products (4) Rusk (in Greek “paximadi” ) The Greek rusks are unique in the world. In Greece one can find either hardtacks or rusks made from qualitative and healthy raw materials. The best paximadi is from Crete. Paximadi is a perfect supplement to the famous Mediterranean diet.Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.
62Greek products (5)Roasted red peppersThe Greek roasted red peppers are of exceptional quality and are mainly produced in Macedonia, in the north of Greece. In Greece, one can find peppers for stuffing, for frying, for pickling and for drying. The most famous of all Greek red peppers are the 'Florina Peppers‘. Pepperoncini Τhe Greek Pepperoncini is a true gift of Nature. These spicy, crunchy peppers are perfect whole as part of antipasto platter or sliced as salad toppers. The Greek pepperoncini is a supplement to the famous Mediterranean diet. Pepperoncini is exported throughout the world .
63Greek products (6) Saffron Greek red saffron or 'Krokos Kozanis', a pure product of the Greek land, is considered to be one of the best saffrons in the world. Oregano is a species of Origanum of the mint family that is native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. It is a perennial herb, growing from 20–80 cm tall, with opposite leaves 1–4 cm long. The flowers are purple, 3–4 mm long, produced in erect spikes. Vinegar has been uses since ancient times and is an important element in cuisine,It is an acidic liquid processed from fermentation. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar and higher concentrations for pickling.
64Greek dancesGreek dance is a very old tradition, being referred to by ancient authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Lucian.There are different styles and interpretations from all the islands and surrounding mainland areas. Each region formed its own choreography and style to fit in with their own ways. e.g., island dances have more of a "watery" flow to them, while Pontic dancing is very sharp.There are over 4000 traditional dances that come from all regions of Greece. Traditional Greek dancing has a primarily social function.It brings the community together at key points of the year, such as feasts or of people’s lives such as weddings.Xasaposerviko(mp4) Xasaposerviko(mp2)Tsamiko(mp4) Tsamiko(mp2)Pyrixios(mp4) Pyrixios(mp2)Baintouska(mp4) Baintouska(mp2)
65Feasts and celebrations Today, the Festivals in Greece have a religious basis or a cultural nature.Many theatrical plays are performed in the country’s ancient and modern theatres. Cinema is quite well represented in Greece and a festival takes place every year in Thessaloniki.The country also has an interesting musical scene, especially during summertime.
66Feasts and celebrations (1) Religious FestivalsJanuary 1, the Feast of Áyios Vassílios (Saint Basil), celebrated with church services. It is also the day of the “vassilopita”, a sweat bread with a coin inside which brings to its finder good luck for the future year. January 1 is also the day were the Christmas gifts are given in Greece.January 6: the EpiphanyOn Epiphany the waters are blessed and evil spirits are banished. It is the day when the “kalikántzari”or hobgoblins that appeared during the period of Christmas are re-banished to the netherworld by the church’s rites. At lakeside, seaside or riverside locations, the priests throw a cross into the water and young locals dive to compete for the privilege and blessing of finding it.
67Feasts and celebrations (2) The CarnivalsThe Carnival is called “Apokries” and is expressed by three weeks of feasting and dancing for three weeks before the Lenten Monday (Katharí Deftera).Important celebrations take place in Patra, Xanthi, Kozani and other cities with a wonderful chariot parade and costumes parties.Kathari Deftera known as Clean or Ash Monday. For Greeks, it is one of the most festive holidays of the year. Greek people spend the day in the countryside. Flying kites and feasting at local tavernas or outdoor picnics is how Lent begins in Greece.Lent food includes sea food, salads, greens and pulse.March 25: Feast of AnnunciationIt is a feast which celebrates the day the angel Gabriel announced Mary the incarnation of the Christ.The Annunciation meal is traditionally fish.
68Feasts and celebrations (3) Greek Easter - A Time for FamilyEaster is the most important feast of Greece and of the Orthodox Church.Greek Orthodox Easter is marked by unique traditions that make.Easter in Greece different than Easter celebrations in other lands.Of all the Christian feast days, Easter is the greatest time for foods, feasting and celebration to people in the Greek Orthodox faith.Greek foods and traditions mark the season as uniquely Hellenic.The Holy Week is the peak of traditional activities. more on Easter
69Feasts and celebrations (4) August 15: Day of the Assumption of the Virgin MaryThis feast celebrates Mary’s ascent to Heaven. Great pilgrimages take place to Tinos and festivities are organised in Páros, Lesvos, Olymbos or Karpathos and many other parts of Greece.December 25: ChristmasThe feast is of great importance, as it is celebrating the birth of the Christ. The traditional Greek decoration used to be a wooden boat but today, the decorations are more similar to the western tradition. It is a day where many religious and musical festivities take place. On the 24th children traditionally sing Christmas carols (kalanda) from door to door.
70Feasts and celebrations (5) National Greece DatesMarch 25: Greek Independence DayIt is the day of the celebration of the beginning of the Greek revolution against the Turkish occupants in It is celebrated with military parades all over Greece.October 28: National AnniversaryIt is the day of the National Anniversary in honour of the famous “Oxi” (no) refusal of the Greek People to Mussolini’s demand to occupy the country during World War II.November 17Day of the student rise against the Junta of 1973.May 1: Labour DayIt is called “Protomayia” and it is an urban holiday when people traditionally go to the countryside for picnic and pick great bunches of flowers. It is also a day where large demonstrations organised by the left wings take place.
72Greek shadow theatreShadow theatre, with a single puppeteer creating voices for a dialogue, narrating a story, and even singing while manipulating puppets.Karagiozis or Karaghiozis is a shadow puppet and fictional character of Greek folklore . He is the main character of the tales narrated in the Greek shadow-puppet theatre.Puppeteers devise their own original tales, however, there are many 'traditional' tales that have descended orally from earlier puppeteers and are accepted as 'canon' with slight alterations between the players.To watch a video press here(mp4) or here(mp2)
73Greek shadow theatre (Scenario) Karagiozis is a poor hunchbacked Greek, his right hand is always depicted long, his clothes are ragged and patched, and his feet are always bare.He lives in a poor cottage with his wife Aglaia and his three boys, during the times of the Ottoman Empire.The scene is occupied by his cottage in the left, and the Sultan's Palace (Sarayi) on the far right.Because of his poverty, Karagiozis uses mischievous and crude ways to find money and feed his family.Karagiozis' tales are divided in two major categories: the 'Heroics' and the 'Comedies' based on tradition or real stories involving the times under Ottoman rule.
74Music for us pupils!!! Greek pop music Greek hip hop XatzigiannisXeria psilaBythosPaparizouPorta gia ton oyranoNumber 1 (1st prize, Eurovision song contest 2004)OniramaKleise ta matiaH balanta tou trelouGreek hip hopGoing throughDen kano diakopesActive memberPameGreek popular musicAlkinoos IoannidisProskinitisPliatsikasPoios exei logo sthn agaph
75This is our country!!! You are all welcome to visit us! to enjoy the sun, the crystal clear sea and the Greek hospitality!to experience history, civilization and culture and…taste some of its outstanding products and dishes!
76Those who worked for this presentation First gradeΤαμπακίδου Μαρία – ΕλένηΣταυριανού ΜαρίαΧατζή ΚωνσταντίναΧρήστου Αλίκη Σταυρίδης ΣταύροςΧατζηευθυμίου ΕυθύμηςΣαχινίδης ΘέμιςΠαναγιωτοπούλου ΓεωργίαΞυδά ΚατερίναΞυδά ΚωνσταντίναΣτραγανιώτη ΒασιλικήΜπάσιου ΔήμητραΒασιλειάδου ΑλεξάνδραΓιαρένη ΗλιάναΖήσαρου ΧρυσούλαThird gradeΒασιλειάδου ΒάγιαΓιαννακάκης ΧρήστοςΚίτσου ΓιαννούλαΚουρούδης ΠρόδρομοςΜανάρα Ελένη