8Why?The official reason was to protect the Catholic population, especially in Belfast, against Loyalist attacks.At first Catholics welcomed British troops as impartial or neutral peace-keepers.Privately the British government was aware that the number of disturbances across Northern Ireland was so great that the 3000-strong RUC could not cope any longer.British secret intelligence wrongly believed the IRA was about to launch an uprising in Belfast and Londonderry.In fact the IRA lacked arms, membership and popular support at this time.
9Why were troops sent?Medium-term causesA divided society
10Why political violence in 1969? Failure of leadership on all sides in Northern Ireland to manage change.By the 1960s a significant number of people on both sides of the sectarian and political divide wanted to change Northern Ireland and give ita fairer society anda modern economyThey seriously under-estimated the economic and communal obstacles to a true liberal democracy
11Who wanted what in the 1960s? For change Against change Own agendas Moderate unionists, such as Terence O’NeillMembers of the NI government, such as Brian FaulknerBritish governmentCampaign for Social JusticeIan Paisley & Free PresbyteriansOrange OrderPeople’sDemocracyNorthern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA)Some of RUCB-SpecialsIrish RepublicanArmy
12What did civil rights supporters want? one man one votethe right of everyone over 18 to vote and an end to extra votes for people owning businessesan end to gerrymanderingwhich fixed constituency boundaries to create unionist control of Catholic areasan end to discrimination in the allocation of government jobsfair allocation of local council housesthe end of the Special Powers Actthe disbanding of the B Specials anda formal complaints procedure against local authorities.
17Terence O’Neill, NI PM His failings O'Neill was a moderate politician, who found it very difficult to deal with extremists.His reforms were hurried.They were too radical for his unionist critics,but not radical enough for his republican critics.Orangeman Visiting a Catholic school Meeting the Taoiseach
18Radicalism in the civil rights Movement The NICRA was concerned first and foremost with the issue of civil rights, and many Protestants supported this.However, some of the leading figures in the civil rights movement were republican Nationalists.Many others believed in socialist principles, especially the leaders of the People's Democracy (PD) movement.Northern Ireland was a very conservative society, and socialist ideas were still treated with suspicion.Bernadette Devlin
19A new tone in civil rights marches Londonderry, 1968 Note the socialist symbols
20Protestant opposition & resentment Rev. Dr Ian Paisley Many working-class Loyalists were angry at the demands of the 'civil righters'.They resented the impression given in the media that only Catholics suffered hardships while a privileged Protestant community looked down on them.They also had to deal with poor living conditions and hardship.‘It was all Catholics this, the Catholics that, living in poverty and us lording it over them.People looked around and said, ‘What are they talking about us?With the damp running down the walls and the houses not fit to live in.’
21Other causes Sectarian prejudice Media attention Fear of the IRA Clearly, long-standing sectarian prejudice played a major part in explaining the long-term civil rights abuses. It was also one reason for the violence in 1969.The government's own report (by the Cameron Commission) went out of its way to criticise the sectarian bias in the actions of some RUC officers and B-Specials.It made it clear that the marchers were not violent.Media attentionThe entire saga took place under the gaze of the television cameras.This raised the stakes and heightened confrontation.Fear of the IRAMany Protestants, including many in the Northern Ireland government, saw the civil rights movement as a plot to destabilise Northern Ireland, little more than a front for an IRA attack backed up by the Republic.Marching & confrontationMarching has a long tradition in Northern Ireland. It has often led to confrontation. The People's Democracy march in January 1969 deliberately took a route through sensitive areas, which would be sure to stir up Protestant hostility.With hindsight, this fear of the IRA may seem to be nonsense. The IRA was virtually nonexistent at this time.However, Protestants had seen thousands of Catholics turn out to parades commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising in 1966.Some politicians in the Republic made tensions worse since they were suspected of helping to fund the IRA.
22ConfrontationThe most spectacular confrontation happened on 4 January 1969 (top and bottom right).Then a march organised by the PD was ambushed by loyalists at Burntollet, near Londonderry.The police appeared to do little to protect the marchers.
23Did the troops restore order? Aftermath 1Did the troops restore order?
24Initial honeymoonA corporal from the Parachute Regiment described his experiences in 1969:We used to just wander around in pairs like policemen.You’d go out for a two-hour patrol and in two hours you drank twenty cups of tea because everybody wanted to give you a cup of tea and a sandwich. We called it the honeymoon tour.We had a disco every night and the girls used to come in That’s where a lot of the lads met their wives.Because we were in a predominantly Protestant area we had all Protestants, but down at TIC HQ on Hastings Street, right on the peace line between the Falls and Shankill Roads, they had a big massive disco and used to get women from both sides.Everybody used to mix together.There was no trouble at all.
2630 years of political violence Peace initiatives failed in face of oppositionProtestants spearheaded by Ian PaisleyWith Protestant paramilitary forces on handMaintain United KingdomKeep Dublin government out of Northern IrelandRevived IRAWith political wing, Sinn Fein, led by Gerry AdamsEject Britain & British troops from Northern IrelandUnited Ireland
27Attempts at a peace settlement Stormont was abolished in 1972 Attempts at a peace settlement Stormont was abolished in NI was ruled directly from Westminster. Attempts were then made to restore devolved government in NI.Power-Sharing Executive & Sunningdale Agreement1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement1993 Downing Street Declaration1998 Good Friday AgreementAn enthusiastic reception by the Belfast Telegraph for the first IRA ceasefire,31 August 1994
28Ian Paisley & other Unionists Opposing the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement Among other things,the British government recognised the Republic’s right to make proposals on matters relating to Northern Irelandthe Republic recognised a united Ireland was a long-term aim which would only come about with the approval of the majority in Northern Ireland.
29Protestant paramilitaries Ulster Defence Association parades, 1972/97 & Ulster Volunteer Force gunmen
30Opposing viewsThere is no such thing as political murder, political bombing, or political violence. We will not compromise on this.British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, 1981Victims of the troubles,CiviliansAll security forces 1036All paramilitariesTotalOur aim is to create such psychological damage to the Brits that they’ll withdraw. Sick of the expense, the hassle, the coffins coming back to England.IRA member known only as ‘Pat’
32Mutual outrage Funeral of hunger striker Bobby Sands, May 1981 In 1979 the IRA killed Lord Mountbatten, uncle of Queen Elizabeth II.
33How things change: 2007 Northern Ireland’s arch-enemies declare peace Ian Paisley met Gerry Adams and agreed to share power with Sinn Fein, 26 March. Paisley became first minister of NI on 8 May, with Martin McGuinness as his deputy.