Presentation on theme: "10 th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy Chapter 15 – Section 4 The Korean War."— Presentation transcript:
10 th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy Chapter 15 – Section 4 The Korean War
The Main Idea Cold War tensions finally erupted in a shooting war in 1950. The United States confronted a difficult challenge defending freedom halfway around the world. Reading Focus What was the situation in Korea before the war began in 1950? What were the circumstances that led to the start of the Korean War? What were the key battles of the Korean War? How did the fighting in the Korean War end?
Korea before the War After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts. The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38 th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38 th parallel. The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung. In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
Kim Il Sung. North Korean political leader, chief of state of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (1948–94). During the nearly four decades of his absolute rule in the northern half of Korea, he has developed a political thought known as chuch'e, a concept of self-reliance. In his effort to reunify the divided country militarily, and convinced that the people in the south would welcome being ruled by his government, he launched an attack on the Republic of Korea in the south in June 1950, starting the Korean War. In the aftermath of the war, Kim successfully used the opportunity to purge his political rivals, and took on the task of reconstruction of North Korea which had been devastated by the war.
Syngman Rhee The first president of South Korea from August 1948 to April 1960. He was in his 70’s when became president. Rhee was a strong anti-Communist, wanted Korean Independence and led South Korea through the Korean War. Rhee became unpopular with his allies for refusing to agree to a number of ceasefire proposals that would have left Korea divided. He also argued for stronger methods to be used against China and often expressed annoyance at the reluctance of the U.S. to bomb it. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election.
North Korea Successfully Invades South Korea and the U.N. and U.S. Respond (03:21)
Korea Before the War What was the situation in Korea before the war began in 1950? RecallRecall – Which neighboring nations have had a strong influence on Korea? ExplainExplain – How did North Korea come under Soviet control? EvaluateEvaluate – How do you think the North and South Koreans goals of reunifying the country differed?
The Start of the Korean War North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. Most leaders in the United States were surprised by this attack. –American troops stationed in South Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal. –The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea; however, the decision to fight was made quickly. Truman decided that the United States would take a stand against Communist aggression in Korea. The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in favor of the use of force in Korea.
Defeat Seems Inevitable as the North Korean Forces Continue South (03:33)
Task Force SmithTask Force Smith was the first U.S. Army ground maneuver unit to enter combat in Korea. On June 30, 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized General Douglas MacArthur to commit ground forces under his command to Korea, and MacArthur sent a makeshift infantry battalion of the 24th Division to be flown to Korea in the six C-54 transport aircraft available. The remainder of the division followed by water. The initial force was to make contact with the enemy and fight a delaying action. This was Task Force Smith, "that arrogant display of strength" that MacArthur hoped would fool the North Koreans into thinking a larger force was at hand. Some officers assumed that even this small force would give the North Koreans pause once they realized whom they were fighting The Battle of Osan was the first engagement between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War. Vastly outnumbered and ill-equipped, U.S. Task Force Smith of 540 men suffered 180 casualties while inflicting about 120 casualties on the North Korean force and delaying them half a day.
The Start of the Korean War Role of the United States South Korea was where the United States had to take a stand against Communist aggression. Truman ordered American naval and air forces to support Korean ground troops. Truman asked the United Nations to approve the use of force to stop the North Korean invasion. Role of the United Nations The UN Security Council supported the use of force in Korea. Truman sent ground troops to Korea. The troops sent to Korea were to be a United Nations force. Instead of calling this a war, the whole effort was referred to as a UN police action.
American Forces Fight Back: The Pusan Perimeter and Inchon (04:57)
The Start of the Korean War What were the circuimstances that led to the start of the Korean War? RecallRecall – Why was the UN Security Council able to vote unanimously to use force in Korea? ExplainExplain – Why was President Truman committed to helping South Korea? Make InferencesMake Inferences – What can you infer from the fact that the United States and Soviet Union had withdrawn their troops from North Korea at the time that Kim IL Sung ordered the invasion of South Korea?
Combat in the Korean War Offensives from Inchon and Pusan resulted in the destruction or surrender of huge numbers of North Korean troops. By October 1950 all of South Korea was back in UN hands. The Inchon Landing UN forces made an amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon. MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully. The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a key victory for UN forces. North Korea on the Run UN forces had begun to move into North Korea, but the when 260,000 Chinese troops joined the North Koreans the UN began to retreat. UN forces retreated all the way back to Seoul. It was the longest fallback in U.S. military history. UN Forces Retreat
General MacArthur Is Fired MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them. He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons. Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway stopped the Chinese onslaught and pushed them back to the 38 th parallel—without needing to expand the war or use atomic weapons. MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president. Truman fired MacArthur. Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
Key Battles of the Korean War What were the key battles of the Korean War? RecallRecall – Why was the Inchon landing important? Identify Cause and EffectIdentify Cause and Effect – What happened as a result of MacArthur’s decision to tale all of North Korea? EvaluateEvaluate – Why was it important to hold the port of Pusan?
Key Battles of the Korean War DescribeDescribe – What was the public reaction when President Truman fired General MacArthur? EvaluateEvaluate – Do you think President Truman made the right decision when he fired MacArthur?
Peace Talks Begin but Do Not Bring an Immediate End to the War (02:32
Fighting Ends in Korea Negotiating for Peace In July 1951 peace talks began. One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas. Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides. In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war. Negotiators in Panmunjom continued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952. Events of 1953 In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—who promised to end the war—was elected president. Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000. An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953. The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950. The human costs were huge. –37,000 Americans died –60,000 UN Troops killed –2 million Communist forces died –3 million North and South Korean Civilians
July 22, 1953; Peace Treaties Signed to End the War (01:31)
Fighting Ends in Korean SummarizeSummarize – Why did negotiations for peace drag on for so long? EvaluateEvaluate – What did the Korean War accomplish?
Korean War Veterans MemorialKorean War Veterans Memorial – Washington D.C. As you approach the memorial, the first things you see are the nineteen soldiers on patrol heading up hill. The use of Juniper bushes in the field is to show the rugged terrain they met. Veterans who visit the memorial view the granite slabs, located in front of each soldier, as obstacles that American soldiers had to overcome. A low granite slab does not do justice to the many obstacles that they had to overcome. The ponchos that each is wearing can only give you a hint as to the miserable weather they faced. The soldiers at the front of the patrol represent the first soldiers sent to the Korean peninsula. Many of the first soldiers were ill equipped and ill trained yet they persevered. American soldiers faced foul weather, rugged terrain, poor equipment, not to mention 54 divisions of communist Chinese soldiers but in the end they were able to overcome all these obstacles. The soldiers represent a unit on patrol. There is much to see in the field, most of which is not readily apparent to the average visitor. The original design of the memorial was to have 38 statues to represent the 38th parallel. Most of the fighting occurred along this line but due to space limitations the number of statues had to be cut in half.
The highly polished surface of the wall of faces reflects all nineteen soldiers producing a total thirty-eight figures. It is not just the Army represented in the field. All four branches of the United States Military have representatives. If you look in to the faces of the soldiers you will notice that they represent all different races. Even though the United States had a very segregated society, the armed forces had begun to integrate units. Visitors to the memorial are so awe struck by the soldiers, that before they know it they have missed the other parts of the memorial. Along the north side of the memorial is a low stone wall, on which are engraved the 22 countries that made up the United Nations forces in Korea. Not all the nations participated militarily. Several contributed much needed medical supplies and personnel. These 22 nations felt strongly that their freedom was also being threatened, and was willing to help in whatever way they could. Along the south side of the memorial is the wall of faces. When the wall is viewed from a distance, the faces form the outline of the rugged hills that are a dominant part of the Korean landscape. The images depicted on the wall were taken from actual photographs of soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen who participated in the conflict. The faces along the wall represent the support troops it took to keep our foot soldier in the field. We do not often think about those who are behind the front lines. It is somewhat ironic that one of the best-known TV shows about war, MASH, takes place in Korea and is about doctors and nurses in the Korean War.