Presentation on theme: "Kasus Bhopal December 3-4, 1984: 40 tonnes of methyl iso-cyanate (MIC) released from Union Carbide plant at Bhopal Accidental release caused by leakage."— Presentation transcript:
1Kasus BhopalDecember 3-4, 1984: 40 tonnes of methyl iso-cyanate (MIC) released from Union Carbide plant at BhopalAccidental release caused by leakage of water into MIC storage tankNone of the six safety systems workedSafety standards and maintenance system ignored for monthsComplete absence of community information and emergency proceduresPublic alarm system operated after the gas had leaked for nearly four hours
2Industrial disaster“Industrial disasters are caused by chemical, chemical, mechanical, civil, electrical, or other process failures due to accident, negligence or incompetence, in an industrial plant which may spill over to the areas outside the plant causing damage to life and property.”
3Chemical disaster“Chemical disasters are occurrence of emission, fire or explosion involving one or more hazardous chemicals in the course of industrial activity or storage or transportation or due to natural events leading to serious effects inside or outside the installation likely to cause loss of life and property including adverse effects on the environment.”
4Major industrial disasters that shaped public policy Triangle Factory Fire New York (USA) 1911100 garment workers died in fireMinamata Mercury Disaster (Japan)3,000 people suffered, severe mercury poisoning symptoms, deformities or deathSeveso Dioxin Disaster (Italy) 19763,000 animals died, 70,000 slaughtered to prevent dioxins entering food chainBhopal Gas Disaster (India) 198415,000 killed, over 500,000 affectedThe fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers in that industry.The Chisso Corporation, a fertilizer and later petrochemical company, was found responsible for polluting the bay during the years It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.The disaster lead to the Seveso Directive, which was issued by the European Community and imposed much harsher industrial regulations.
5Bhopal Gas Tragedy Worst industrial disaster in history 2,000 people died on immediate aftermathAnother 13,000 died in next fifteen years10-15 persons dying every month520,000 diagnosed chemicals in blood causing different health complications120,000 people still suffering fromCancerTuberculosisPartial or complete blindness,Post traumatic stress disorders,Menstrual irregularitiesRise in spontaneous abortion and stillbirthIndia, the second most populated country of the world is one of the most disaster prone countries of Asia.
6Second generation effect ICMR, IMA, AMA studies showChildren born with genetic defectsGrowth retardation in boysHormonal chaos among girlsGround water contamination with high level of mercury, lead, nickel, VOCs and HCHHigh prevalence of skin and gastro-intestinal diseasesBioaccumulation of toxins found in vegetables and breast milk
8Chisso Corporation Chisso = nitrogen Produced fertilizer 1907: Chisso Corp. builds a fertilizer plant in the Minamata.Job openings1925: plant begins dumping untreated wastewater into Minamata BayKills fishFisherman Payoffs
9Chisso Corporation1932: Chisso plant begins to produce acetaldehyde to be used in the production of plastic, perfume and drugs.Acetaldehyde is made from acetylene and water with a mercury catalyst.After WWII plastic production boomed and Chisso Corp. grew.By 1970: Chisso brought Japan 60% of its income and owned nearly 70% of the land in Minamata.Affects from the wastewater began to be seen in the early 1950’s.
10Bizarre Behavior in Animals Early 1950’s:Dead fish wash ashoreCrows fall out of skySuicidal dancing catsMercury moves up the food chain.
11Mid 1950’s: Behavior Seen in Humans Behaviors witnessed:Loss of motor control in handsViolent tremorsSwaggered walkInsanity“Cat-dancing” diseaseNobody knew the cause of the epidemic.Many hid for fear of ridicule
12The Aftermath 30-70 tons of methyl mercury was dumped into the Bay 10,000 people affected by Minamata disease.3,000 diedCompensation has been given to families as recently as 1990.Highest compensation for the disaster was just under $3,000.
13Symptoms of the Disease Methylmercury poisoning Minamata Japan, 1930s-1950sSymptoms of the DiseaseMildAtaxiaMuscle weaknessNarrowed field of visionHearing and speech damageSevere cases causeInsanityParalysisComaDeathW. Eugene Smith Tomoko Uemura in Her Bath Minamata, 1972
14More SymptomsA significant effect of Minamata is the onset of symptoms similar to those of cerebral palsyFetal Minamata DiseaseA pregnant mother ingests toxic fish and the methylmercury concetrates inside the placenta.Harms the fetus while the mother is relatively unaffected
15These are all children with congenital (fetal) Minamata Disease due to intrauterine methyl mercury poisoning (Harda 1986).
16Examples of chemicals in food, air, water linked to birth defects Cross placenta to embryo Defects of brain, nerves, heartDefects of skeleton (often limbs)Blindness, deafnessSpasticityMental retardationDefects of heart, brainDecreased fetal growthDefects of face (cleft palate/lip)Emotional & learning problems
17Mercury: The BasicsMercury (Hg) is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. It melts at oC and boils at 356.6oC.Mercury conducts electricity, expands uniformly with temperature and easily forms alloys with other metals (called amalgams).For these reasons, it is used in many products found in homes and schools.
18Mercury Chemistry Mercury exists in three oxidation states: Hg0 (elemental mercury).Hg22+ (mercurous).Hg2+ (mercuric).Mercurous and mercuric form numerous inorganic and organic chemical compounds.Organic forms of mercury, especially methyl mercury, CH3Hg(II)X, where “X” is a ligand (typically Cl- or OH-) are the most toxic forms.Mercury is unusual among metals because it tends to form covalent rather than ionic bonds. Most of the mercuryencountered in water/soil/sediments/biota (all environmental media except the atmosphere) is in the formof inorganic mercuric salts and organomercurics. Organomercurics are defined by the presence of acovalent C-Hg bond. The presence of a covalent C-Hg bond differentiates organomercurics frominorganic mercury compounds that merely associate with the organic material in the environment but donot have the C-Hg bond. The compounds most likely to be found under environmental conditions arethese: the mercuric salts HgCl , Hg(OH) and HgS; the methylmercury compounds, methylmercuric 2 2chloride (CH HgCl) and methylmercuric hydroxide (CH HgOH);
19Uses of MercuryWe use its unique properties to conduct electricity, measure temperature and pressure, act as a biocide, preservative and disinfectant and catalyze reactions.It is the use of mercury in catalysis that contributed to the events in Minamata.Other uses include batteries, pesticides, fungicides, dyes and pigments, and the scientific apparati.
20Mercury in the Environment Upwards of 70% of the mercury in the environment comes from anthropogenic sources, including:Metal processing, waste incineration, and coal-powered plants.Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean.Estimates are that human sources have nearly doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere.Global anthropogenic emissions of mercury are estimated to range between 2000 and 6000 metric tons per year. Electric utilities, municipal waste combustors, commercial and industrial boilers, and medical waste incinerators account for approximately 80 percent of the total amount. Coal-fired utility boilers are the largest point source of unregulated mercury emissions in the United States.
21Methylmercury concentrations Reference dose 0.1g/kg bw/day135-lb. woman: 1.5oz. Swordfish or 7 oz. tuna/week50-lb. child: oz. Swordfish or 2.6 oz. tuna/weekMethylmercury concentrationsFreshwater fish ppmOcean fish ppmPredator fish > 1.0ppmFish in “polluted” water > 10ppmFish from Minamata Bay ~ 50ppmWhale meat ~4ppmWhale liver >1000ppm
22Four Major Pollution di Jepang CaseAccusedRulingMinamata Disease (organic mercury in sea water)Chisso Corp.Plaintiff wins in 1973Itai-itai Disease (cadmium in river water)Mitsui KinzokuPlaintiff wins in 1972Niigata Minamata Disease (organic mercury in river water)Showa DenkoPlaintiff wins in 1971Yokkaichi Asthma (air pollution by petrochemicals)Mitsubishi Petrochemicals etcAward winning photo of Minamata Disease victimYokkaichi 1961Yokkaichi today
23Congenital Minamata disease; Mercury toxicity, Japan 1955 MicrocephalyCerebral palsy / spasticMental deficitsMalformation of ears, heart, skeleton, eyes
24Bhopal, IndiaIn Dec. 3, 1984, an explosion at the Union Carbide plant released a deadly cocktail of poison gas made up of methyl isocyanante, hydrogen cyanide, monomethyl amine, carbon monoxide and up to 20 other chemicals.4 months later report on 1,430 deaths.By 1999, the toxic gas killed at least 16,000 according to local estimates; tens of thousands continue to suffer.This presentation is based on the text articles, Bhopal, pp , and Chemical Safety in Developing Countries, the lessons of Bhopal, pp
25Arsenic toxicity from well waters in Bangladesh and CCA BMJ March 25; 320(7238): 826.Half of Bangladesh population at risk of arsenic poisoningBangladesh may be heading for an epidemic of arsenic poisoning with an estimated 60 million regularly ingesting arsenic through drinking contaminated groundwaterSurveys of groundwater used for drinking and cooking have identified unacceptably high concentrations of arsenic in several thousand deep tube wells, Dr Karim said. Some wells contain 0.4 mg/l of arsenic, 40 times the acceptable concen
26Dioxin and ChloracneVIENNA, Austria (CNN) -- Dioxin poisoning caused the disfiguring illness afflicting Ukrainian opposition presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko, doctors at an Austrian hospital said Saturday.Doctors said at a news conference that they suspect a "third party" administered the poison in September, possibly by putting it in Yushchenko's soup.