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David S. Shen-Miller Ellen Hawley McWhirter Anne S. Bartone

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1 David S. Shen-Miller Ellen Hawley McWhirter Anne S. Bartone
Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications edited by David Capuzzi and Mark Stauffer Chapter One Historical Influences on the Evolution of Vocational Counseling David S. Shen-Miller Ellen Hawley McWhirter Anne S. Bartone

2 Definitions Work Vocation Career

3 Career 5 Tenets Individualism and autonomy Affluence
An open structure of opportunity based on assumptions of merit Work as the central role in people’s lives Logical, linear, and progressive development of work and career (Gysbers, Heppner, Johnston, and Neville, 2003)

4 Stage One: The Beginning
Middle 1800s to early 1900s Industrial Revolution Urbanization Labor unions grow in strength Unskilled labor Engineer Frederick Taylor Scientific management

5 Stage One: The Beginning
Extreme conditions of the workplace Children in Labor Women’s role in work Gender/race/class differences Protestant Work Ethic Social Darwinism

6 Stage One: The Beginning
Two Social Reform Movements Progressive Movement Educational Reform Movement

7 Stage One: The Beginning
Progressive Movement Women’s suffrage Regulation of industry First child labor law 1908

8 Stage One: The Beginning
Educational Reform Movement Mass entrance into schools Child saving movement Factory and corporate schools

9 Stage One: The Beginning
The beginnings of vocational guidance Frank Parsons Vocation Bureau in Boston School-to-work transition Choosing a Vocation (1909) First vocational conference in Boston

10 Stage One: The Beginning
The beginnings of vocational guidance 1913 National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) 1913 U.S. Department of Labor

11 Stage One: The Beginning
The beginnings of vocational guidance Jesse Davis Guidance in the schools John Dewey (1916) Integration of two tracks college preparatory vocational education Diversity in education

12 Stage Two: Calls for Measurement, and Vocational Guidance in the Schools (1914-1929)
WWI and its aftermath Women’s right to vote (1919) Automobiles, skyscrapers, and airplanes Large-scale immigration and legislation

13 Stage Two: (1914-1929) Vocational Instruments and Psychometrics
Army Alpha and Army Beta tests Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery NVGA’s “Principles and Practices of Vocational Guidance”

14 Stage Two: (1914-1929) Legislation
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918 Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 Veteran’s Administration (VA)

15 Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Stage 3: ( ) The Great Depression and the Expectations of a Nation Massive immigration into the U. S 1929: The U.S. stock market crashed Roosevelt Administration’s New Deal Organized Labor strengthened Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor (AFL)

16 Stage 3: (1929-1939) The “child study” movement
Social Security Act, 1935 Jewish Vocational Services The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (1939)

17 Stage 4: World War II, More Testing and Major Theoretical Influences (1940-1957)
Military and Non-military assessment MBTI, Strong’s Interest Inventory Occupational Outlook Handbook (OHH) The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (1939)

18 Legislation GI Bill of 1946 George-Barden Act
Stage 4: ( ) Legislation GI Bill of 1946 George-Barden Act

19 Stage 4: (1940-1957) “Vocational Guidance” replaced
Developmental perspectives e.g., Erickson New psychological theories Maslow, Rogers New Career Theories Super, Ginzberg, Ann Roe

20 Stage 4: (1940-1957) Division of Counseling Psychology in 1952
American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) in 1952

21 Stage 5: 1958-1970: The Space Race, Civil Rights and the Great Society
Boom for counseling Von Bertalanffy’s (1968) “systems theory” Work Adjustment theory

22 Stage 5: 1958-1970 Legislation in general
Minority groups and women issues addressed and involved in vocational legislation, along with the emergence of affirmative action Barriers to vocational success were overtly considered for the first time Vocational guidance became even more integral to legislation aimed at reducing economic or occupational woes.

23 Stage 5: 1958-1970 Most Significant legislation
The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958 Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964

24 Stage 5: 1958-1970 Other Significant legislation
Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

25 Stage 6: The Boom Years Continue (1970-1979)
Watergate and the end of the Vietnam War Surge in popularity of vocational counseling Women’s Educational Equity Act of 1974 Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council 1973 Rehabilitation Act Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1977

26 Stage 6: (1970-1979) NOICC and SOICC
SIGI Plus, DISCOVER, Career Information System (CIS), Guidance Information System (GIS) Generalizability concerns of testing

27 Stage 6: (1970-1979) Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model
Bandura’s Social learning theory Krumboltz’s theory Life Career Development theory

28 Stage 6: The Boom Years Continue (1970-1979)
Public perception of the profession National Board of Certified Counselors: National Certified Career Counselor National Career Counselor Exam in 1983

29 Stage 7: 1980-1989: Inclusion of a Wider Culture
Growing recognition of diversity Decreasing power of organized labor Women’s entry into the workplace in greater numbers Legislative focus on connecting youth with vocational training

30 Stage 7: 1980-1989: Inclusion of a Wider Culture
Career decision-making Life Career Theory Theory of circumscription and compromise Theories challenged to reflect Diversity 1984: the NVGA officially changed its name to the National Career Development Association (NCDA)

31 Stage 8: 1990-Present School-to-work (STW) transition
Increasing diversity in the workplace Discrimination and sexual harassment

32 Stage 8: 1990-Present Aid to Families with Dependent Children
Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) School-to-Work Opportunity Act (STWOA) Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Secretary’s Commission for Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)

33 Stage 8: 1990-2005 Multicultural contributions
Revision of many theories e.g, examination of TWA and Holland’s Theory Multicultural contributions Contextual understanding of career choice Blustein and Spengler’s (1995) Domain-Sensitive Approach Gysbers and Moore’s (1973) Life Career Development theory

34 Stage 9: The Present World and Work Environment changing rapidly
International economy and recession Downsizing, specialization, outsourcing, and increased use of temporary labor Assessment of measures across cultural groups World Wide Web and new ethical challenges Advocacy

35 Stage 9: The present Cultural formulation approach Happenstance Theory
Emancipatory communitarian approach Other theories related to diversity “Voids in legislation” Joint symposiums – IAEVG-SVP-NCDA

36 References Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Krumboltz, J.D. (1979). A social learning theory of career decision making. In A.M. Mitchell, G.B. Jones, & J.D. Krumboltz (Eds.), Social learning and career decision making (pp ). Cranston, RI: Carroll Press. Super, D.E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 8, Von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General systems theory: Foundation, development, application. New York: Braziller.

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