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The Armenian Genocide Traditionally, the Ottomans had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religions. Traditionally, the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Armenian Genocide Traditionally, the Ottomans had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religions. Traditionally, the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Armenian Genocide Traditionally, the Ottomans had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religions. Traditionally, the Ottomans had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religions. From the 1890’s until WWI, Turkish nationalism clashed with minority peoples who wanted their own states. From the 1890’s until WWI, Turkish nationalism clashed with minority peoples who wanted their own states.

2 The Armenian Genocide One such group were the Christian Armenians, who were concentrated in the mountainous eastern region of the empire. One such group were the Christian Armenians, who were concentrated in the mountainous eastern region of the empire.

3 The Armenian Genocide After joining the Central Powers, the Ottomans looked for a way to “solve” their “Armenian question.” After joining the Central Powers, the Ottomans looked for a way to “solve” their “Armenian question.” They forced the Armenians to turn over every pistol or rifle they owned. They forced the Armenians to turn over every pistol or rifle they owned. Armenians in the Turkish military (about 40,000 men) were forced to turn over their weapons then sent to slave labor camps. Armenians in the Turkish military (about 40,000 men) were forced to turn over their weapons then sent to slave labor camps.

4 The Armenian Genocide When Armenians protested against Ottoman repression, the sultan had tens of thousands arrested and murdered. When Armenians protested against Ottoman repression, the sultan had tens of thousands arrested and murdered. The genocide began in April 1915 as 300 Armenian religious, cultural, and political leaders were taken from their homes, tortured, then hung or shot. The genocide began in April 1915 as 300 Armenian religious, cultural, and political leaders were taken from their homes, tortured, then hung or shot.

5 The Armenian Genocide The Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians and accused them of siding (and fighting) with Christian Russia against the Muslim Ottomans. The Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians and accused them of siding (and fighting) with Christian Russia against the Muslim Ottomans. Mass arrests of thousands of men ended in their murders, usually on the outskirts of their villages. Mass arrests of thousands of men ended in their murders, usually on the outskirts of their villages.

6 The Armenian Genocide Women, children, and the elderly were next as they were told to leave all possessions behind (they were told they were quickly being re- located to a non-military zone—for their own safety). Women, children, and the elderly were next as they were told to leave all possessions behind (they were told they were quickly being re- located to a non-military zone—for their own safety). They were actually being sent on death marches southward towards the Syrian desert. They were actually being sent on death marches southward towards the Syrian desert. Their homes and possessions were then taken by ethnic Turks. Their homes and possessions were then taken by ethnic Turks.

7 The Armenian Genocide They were sent without food and water and were escorted by Turkish horsemen. They were sent without food and water and were escorted by Turkish horsemen. Many were forced to march in the desert sun completely nude, where they died of dehydration or exhaustion. Many were forced to march in the desert sun completely nude, where they died of dehydration or exhaustion.

8 The Armenian Genocide Some were killed by being thrown off cliffs, burned alive, or drowned in rivers. Some were killed by being thrown off cliffs, burned alive, or drowned in rivers. An estimated 75% of the Armenians on these death marches died. An estimated 75% of the Armenians on these death marches died. The Turkish countryside became littered with corpses. The Turkish countryside became littered with corpses.

9 The Armenian Genocide Between April January 1919, the New York Times ran 190 articles related to the genocide. America raised money but did little else. Between April January 1919, the New York Times ran 190 articles related to the genocide. America raised money but did little else. Even the Pope asked the Kaiser to intervene. Even the Pope asked the Kaiser to intervene.

10 The Armenian Genocide By the end of WWI, over 1 million Armenians had been killed, victims of ethnic cleansing and the 20 th century’s first genocide. By the end of WWI, over 1 million Armenians had been killed, victims of ethnic cleansing and the 20 th century’s first genocide.

11 The Armenian Genocide After the war, the Allies asked the United States to be the guardian of the new Republic of Armenia. After the war, the Allies asked the United States to be the guardian of the new Republic of Armenia. President Wilson’s attempt to make Armenia an American protectorate failed in Congress in May President Wilson’s attempt to make Armenia an American protectorate failed in Congress in May Armenia was eventually absorbed by Soviet Russia. Armenia was eventually absorbed by Soviet Russia.

12 The Armenian Genocide An unfortunate lesson of history : An unfortunate lesson of history : When Hitler decided to conquer Poland in 1939 he told his generals: "Thus for the time being I have sent to the East only my 'Death's Head Units' with the orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need. Who still talks nowadays about the Armenians?" When Hitler decided to conquer Poland in 1939 he told his generals: "Thus for the time being I have sent to the East only my 'Death's Head Units' with the orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need. Who still talks nowadays about the Armenians?"

13 America at War When America officially entered the war in April 1917, the strength of her allies was not immediately affected. When America officially entered the war in April 1917, the strength of her allies was not immediately affected. Even when/if the United States entered the war, Germany calculated it would be over before the U.S. could come to the rescue of her allies. Even when/if the United States entered the war, Germany calculated it would be over before the U.S. could come to the rescue of her allies.

14 America at War The German military “high command” promised that submarine warfare would bring the war to an end within six months. The German military “high command” promised that submarine warfare would bring the war to an end within six months. German U-boats continued to sink large numbers of ships and by the end of 1917, British shipping had been paralyzed. German U-boats continued to sink large numbers of ships and by the end of 1917, British shipping had been paralyzed.

15 Hanging On With great shortages of food and supplies, it was feared that Britain was less than six weeks from mass starvation and total collapse. With great shortages of food and supplies, it was feared that Britain was less than six weeks from mass starvation and total collapse. France fared little better. By now, troops from the Eastern Front swelled the German lines. France fared little better. By now, troops from the Eastern Front swelled the German lines. The Central Powers prepared for a final offensive, set for the spring of The Central Powers prepared for a final offensive, set for the spring of 1918.

16 Beginning of the End Civilians throughout Europe protested against food shortages and high prices. Civilians throughout Europe protested against food shortages and high prices. In Italy, Austria, Germany, and Russia women rioted. In Italy, Austria, Germany, and Russia women rioted. Austria-Hungary secretly asked the Allies for a negotiated peace to avoid a total collapse of the empire. Austria-Hungary secretly asked the Allies for a negotiated peace to avoid a total collapse of the empire. Summer 1917 Germany wanted a “peace of understanding and permanent reconciliation of peoples.” Summer 1917 Germany wanted a “peace of understanding and permanent reconciliation of peoples.”

17 Women at Work As men joined the armed forces, women stepped into their jobs. In factories, women became welders and assembled airplane parts. Some women drove trolley cars and delivered the mail. Others served as police officers or worked on the railroad. Work in jobs considered “for men only” helped change societal attitudes about what women could do. As men joined the armed forces, women stepped into their jobs. In factories, women became welders and assembled airplane parts. Some women drove trolley cars and delivered the mail. Others served as police officers or worked on the railroad. Work in jobs considered “for men only” helped change societal attitudes about what women could do.

18 The Great Migration Besides major societal changes for women there were major changes for African- Americans. Some argue that the most enduring effect on American life occurred in the African-American community. Besides major societal changes for women there were major changes for African- Americans. Some argue that the most enduring effect on American life occurred in the African-American community. In 1910, 4 out of 5 African-Americans lived in the South, mostly as tenant farmers. As the wartime economy took hold, nearly 2,000,000 African-Americans made their way to the industrial cities of the North, looking for jobs in the steel, auto, mining, and construction industries. In 1910, 4 out of 5 African-Americans lived in the South, mostly as tenant farmers. As the wartime economy took hold, nearly 2,000,000 African-Americans made their way to the industrial cities of the North, looking for jobs in the steel, auto, mining, and construction industries.

19 The Great Migration Some cities of the North saw their populations go up 20%. Some cities of the North saw their populations go up 20%. Cities like New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh saw the largest increases. Cities like New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh saw the largest increases.

20 The Great Migration Unfortunately, many found prejudice and violence. Unfortunately, many found prejudice and violence. When race riots broke out in E. St. Louis, IL in 1917, 39 African- Americans were killed. Many around the country carried signs that demanded “Mr. President, why not make AMERICA safe for Democracy?” When race riots broke out in E. St. Louis, IL in 1917, 39 African- Americans were killed. Many around the country carried signs that demanded “Mr. President, why not make AMERICA safe for Democracy?”

21 Americans in France By March 1918, almost a year after officially entering the war, fewer than 300,000 American troops had landed in France. By June, that number would swell to almost two million. By March 1918, almost a year after officially entering the war, fewer than 300,000 American troops had landed in France. By June, that number would swell to almost two million. Fresh and eager to fight, though not well trained, they gave the Allies the much needed boost to win. Fresh and eager to fight, though not well trained, they gave the Allies the much needed boost to win.

22 Americans in France The Americans met stiff German resistance, but the Americans proved too much for the beleaguered Germans. The Americans met stiff German resistance, but the Americans proved too much for the beleaguered Germans. Allied generals wanted the Americans to play back-up to their troops but the American commanders refused. Allied generals wanted the Americans to play back-up to their troops but the American commanders refused. The U.S. insisted on operating American troops separately so that the U.S. could have a role in shaping the peace. The U.S. insisted on operating American troops separately so that the U.S. could have a role in shaping the peace.

23 The War Ends In September 1918 it was obvious to the German High Command that the entrance of the United States (which they had hoped would not be a factor) changed the dynamics of the war, and they could not win. The Ottoman Empire collapsed. Austria-Hungary collapsed. In September 1918 it was obvious to the German High Command that the entrance of the United States (which they had hoped would not be a factor) changed the dynamics of the war, and they could not win. The Ottoman Empire collapsed. Austria-Hungary collapsed. Germany stood alone and it was now a matter of time before she too, collapsed. Germany stood alone and it was now a matter of time before she too, collapsed. The German people were close to starvation, and anger and frustration could be seen and felt everywhere in Germany. The German people were close to starvation, and anger and frustration could be seen and felt everywhere in Germany.

24 The War Ends On October 4, 1918, Prince Max von Baden, the head of the German cabinet secretly cabled President Wilson: On October 4, 1918, Prince Max von Baden, the head of the German cabinet secretly cabled President Wilson: “To avoid further bloodshed, the German government requests the President to arrange the immediate conclusion of an armistice on land, by sea, and in the air.”

25 The War Ends President Wilson set two conditions for an armistice: President Wilson set two conditions for an armistice: 1). Germany must accept his plan for peace (the 14 Points) and 2). The German emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II, must abdicate the throne (Germany must become democratic).

26 The War Ends While German leaders debated Wilson’s terms, rebellion simmered in the German ranks. While German leaders debated Wilson’s terms, rebellion simmered in the German ranks. Wilson’s Fourteen Points seemed so reasonable to most Germans that revolution was in the air. Wilson’s Fourteen Points seemed so reasonable to most Germans that revolution was in the air. The German Army lost ground every day. German sailors mutinied. Several German cities threatened revolt. Germany was disintegrating into chaos. The German Army lost ground every day. German sailors mutinied. Several German cities threatened revolt. Germany was disintegrating into chaos.

27 The War Ends On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm was forced to resign. He fled to Holland and Germany became a republic. On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm was forced to resign. He fled to Holland and Germany became a republic. The Kaiser’s son, Crown Prince Wilhelm III asked to lead Germany’s army home. The Kaiser’s son, Crown Prince Wilhelm III asked to lead Germany’s army home. His request was denied and he went into exile with his father. His request was denied and he went into exile with his father.

28 The War Ends The war officially ended with the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. (the eleventh day of the eleventh month at the eleventh hour). The war officially ended with the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. (the eleventh day of the eleventh month at the eleventh hour)..

29 The War Ends The most bloody war in human history (to that point) was finally over. The most bloody war in human history (to that point) was finally over. Estimates range to over 20 million killed (military and civilian). Estimates range to over 20 million killed (military and civilian).

30 The Treaty of Versailles Looking for the New World Order

31 The Aftermath When the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918, the German people were unaware that their army had been defeated in the field and was crumbling. When the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918, the German people were unaware that their army had been defeated in the field and was crumbling. No foreign soldiers stood on German soil and Germany was spared the destruction eastern France and Belgium saw. No foreign soldiers stood on German soil and Germany was spared the destruction eastern France and Belgium saw.

32 The Aftermath Most Germans expected a negotiated and relatively mild settlement. Most Germans expected a negotiated and relatively mild settlement. But the actual settlement was quite different and embittered the German people, many who now believed that Germany had been tricked by the Allies and betrayed—some called it “stabbed in the back”—by subversive (i.e. communistic) elements at home. But the actual settlement was quite different and embittered the German people, many who now believed that Germany had been tricked by the Allies and betrayed—some called it “stabbed in the back”—by subversive (i.e. communistic) elements at home.

33 The Aftermath The victors rejoiced but they had much to mourn. The casualties on both sides numbered nearly 10,000,000 dead and twice that wounded. The victors rejoiced but they had much to mourn. The casualties on both sides numbered nearly 10,000,000 dead and twice that wounded. The economic and financial resources of Europe were decimated. The economic and financial resources of Europe were decimated.

34 The Aftermath Europeans had been the world’s creditors; now they were heavy debtors to the new American colossus. Europeans had been the world’s creditors; now they were heavy debtors to the new American colossus.

35 The Aftermath The old international order was dead. Russia was ruled by a Communist dictator that preached worldwide revolution and the overthrowing of capitalism everywhere. The old international order was dead. Russia was ruled by a Communist dictator that preached worldwide revolution and the overthrowing of capitalism everywhere.

36 The Aftermath Germany was in chaos. Austria- Hungary disintegrated into small nation-states. Germany was in chaos. Austria- Hungary disintegrated into small nation-states. The Age of European Hegemony, which lasted nearly 500 years, was over. The Age of European Hegemony, which lasted nearly 500 years, was over. Europe was no longer the center of the world. Europe was no longer the center of the world.

37 The Treaty of Versailles The representatives of the victorious Allies (over 30 countries) met in Paris (Versailles) during the first half of 1919 to draft an official peace settlement. The representatives of the victorious Allies (over 30 countries) met in Paris (Versailles) during the first half of 1919 to draft an official peace settlement. Commanding most of the attention were the leaders of the “Big Four,” Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (FR), and Vittorio Orlando (IT). Commanding most of the attention were the leaders of the “Big Four,” Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (FR), and Vittorio Orlando (IT).

38 The Treaty of Versailles Unlike the diplomats who met in Vienna a century earlier (i.e. Metternich), the “Big Four” represented democratic governments…meaning they had to pay attention to public opinion (or risk being voted out of office). Unlike the diplomats who met in Vienna a century earlier (i.e. Metternich), the “Big Four” represented democratic governments…meaning they had to pay attention to public opinion (or risk being voted out of office). Most of the Versailles meetings were held in the full glare of the public via the press. Most of the Versailles meetings were held in the full glare of the public via the press.

39 The Treaty of Versailles President Wilson had turned WWI (and now Versailles) into a moral crusade of good over evil. His Fourteen Points were “good,” the old order was “evil.” President Wilson had turned WWI (and now Versailles) into a moral crusade of good over evil. His Fourteen Points were “good,” the old order was “evil.” But Wilson’s idealism came into conflict with the more practical war aims of the other Allies. But Wilson’s idealism came into conflict with the more practical war aims of the other Allies.

40 The Treaty of Versailles His 14 Points raised hopes that a more just and democratic future would be established. His 14 Points raised hopes that a more just and democratic future would be established. Wilson’s primary goal was the creation of an international authority (the League of Nations) whose main purpose was to preserve peace through the collective action of the Wilson’s primary goal was the creation of an international authority (the League of Nations) whose main purpose was to preserve peace through the collective action of the member nations against any aggressor (collective security).

41 The Treaty of Versailles To achieve his goal, Wilson was willing to compromise on other issues with the Allies. To achieve his goal, Wilson was willing to compromise on other issues with the Allies. Wilson firmly believed the League could resolve problems that had not been solved or those not foreseen by the Treaty conferees. Wilson firmly believed the League could resolve problems that had not been solved or those not foreseen by the Treaty conferees.

42 The Treaty of Versailles For example, Wilson made national self-determination a priority even though there was no way to redraw the map of Europe to match ethnic groups perfectly with their homelands. For example, Wilson made national self-determination a priority even though there was no way to redraw the map of Europe to match ethnic groups perfectly with their homelands.

43 The Treaty of Versailles

44 Georges Clemenceau and France wanted revenge and they wanted to punish Germany. Of the victors, France had lost the most. Georges Clemenceau and France wanted revenge and they wanted to punish Germany. Of the victors, France had lost the most. The French wanted to make sure the Germans never had the ability to wage war on them again. The French wanted to make sure the Germans never had the ability to wage war on them again.

45 The Treaty of Versailles David Lloyd George and the British also wanted revenge but were not as vengeful as the French. David Lloyd George and the British also wanted revenge but were not as vengeful as the French. Lloyd George even privately said he didn’t want to punish Germany too severely, fearing that it would lead to future problems. Lloyd George even privately said he didn’t want to punish Germany too severely, fearing that it would lead to future problems.

46 The Treaty of Versailles Vittorio Orlando and Italy wanted to collect on the territory promised to them if they came in on the side of the Allies. Vittorio Orlando and Italy wanted to collect on the territory promised to them if they came in on the side of the Allies. Wilson persuaded the others that Italy wasn’t entitled, so Orlando left Versailles early, humiliated and furious. Wilson persuaded the others that Italy wasn’t entitled, so Orlando left Versailles early, humiliated and furious.

47 The Treaty of Versailles When the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918, German leaders believed they would be consulted by the Allies on the contents of the peace treaty. When the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918, German leaders believed they would be consulted by the Allies on the contents of the peace treaty. The Germans believed Wilson’s Fourteen Points represented a settlement instead of a surrender. The Germans believed Wilson’s Fourteen Points represented a settlement instead of a surrender.

48 The Treaty of Versailles On June 28, 1919 the victors concluded six months of negotiations and met in the Hall of Mirrors (the same room in Palace of Versailles where Germany proclaimed her second empire in 1871). On June 28, 1919 the victors concluded six months of negotiations and met in the Hall of Mirrors (the same room in Palace of Versailles where Germany proclaimed her second empire in 1871). Germany was forced to agree to the terms of the peace. Germany was forced to agree to the terms of the peace.

49 The Treaty of Versailles Germany was not allowed to send any delegates and had no choice but to accept whatever was decided. Germany was not allowed to send any delegates and had no choice but to accept whatever was decided. Not showing Germany the contents of the Treaty until a few weeks before they were to sign it angered them, but the Germans knew there was nothing they could do about it. Not showing Germany the contents of the Treaty until a few weeks before they were to sign it angered them, but the Germans knew there was nothing they could do about it.

50 The Treaty of Versailles The anger and humiliation the German public felt when the terms were made public caused the Treaty to be called the ‘Diktat’ (since Germany was being dictated to). The anger and humiliation the German public felt when the terms were made public caused the Treaty to be called the ‘Diktat’ (since Germany was being dictated to). Germany was given two choices: sign the Treaty or be invaded by the Allies. Germany was given two choices: sign the Treaty or be invaded by the Allies.

51 The Treaty of Versailles In reality, the Germans knew they had no choice because a condition of the Armistice was that the German army had to be disbanded. In reality, the Germans knew they had no choice because a condition of the Armistice was that the German army had to be disbanded. Germany was defenseless against the Allies. Germany was defenseless against the Allies.

52 The Treaty of Versailles Germany was particularly upset about Article 231 (the infamous “War Guilt Clause”). Germany was particularly upset about Article 231 (the infamous “War Guilt Clause”). “The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”

53 The Treaty of Versailles Germany did not believe she was solely responsible for the war nor did she believe that she should be blamed or held totally accountable for it. Germany did not believe she was solely responsible for the war nor did she believe that she should be blamed or held totally accountable for it.

54 The Treaty of Versailles The German soldier sent to sign the Treaty refused saying “To say such a thing would be a lie.” The German soldier sent to sign the Treaty refused saying “To say such a thing would be a lie.” “May the hand wither that signs this treaty” “May the hand wither that signs this treaty” Frederick Schneidemann, German Chancellor (June 1919)—He resigned rather than agree to the Treaty. “Those who sign this treaty will sign the death sentence of many millions of German men, women, and children.” Count Brockdorff-Rantzau (May 1919)

55 The Treaty of Versailles Since Article 231 said the war was Germany’s fault, she was held responsible for all war damages. Germany was ordered to pay reparations, the bulk going to France and Belgium to pay for the extensive damage done to those countries. The figure was not set at Versailles; it was to be determined later by the Allies (it would take two years).

56 The Treaty of Versailles The Germans were told to write a blank check to be cashed by the Allies whenever they wanted. The Germans were told to write a blank check to be cashed by the Allies whenever they wanted. In 1921, the total sum was put at 132 billion marks (in gold) equal to about $33 billion in 1921 dollars…(equal to $2.7 trillion today), an enormous amount that was well beyond Germany’s ability to pay. In 1921, the total sum was put at 132 billion marks (in gold) equal to about $33 billion in 1921 dollars…(equal to $2.7 trillion today), an enormous amount that was well beyond Germany’s ability to pay.

57 The Treaty of Versailles The “new” German army was limited to 100,000 men (compared to the 11,000,000 that had been mobilized for the war). The “new” German army was limited to 100,000 men (compared to the 11,000,000 that had been mobilized for the war). The German navy was to be scuttled, subs turned over to the Allies, and the air corps dissolved. The German navy was to be scuttled, subs turned over to the Allies, and the air corps dissolved. Germany was to deliver a large amount of free coal to Belgium and France every year. Germany was to deliver a large amount of free coal to Belgium and France every year.

58 The Treaty of Versailles Germany had to give up all colonies. France recovered the Alsace and Lorraine. If Germany didn’t follow any of the terms, the Allies (mainly France) threatened to occupy Germany’s Ruhr Valley—the center of Germany’s industry and mining. This threat prompted Germany to make its first payment in 1921.

59 The Treaty of Versailles The Treaty also called for the trial of the former Kaiser. This never happened because the Dutch refused to hand him over. Germany’s punishment was so severe it created the environment that enabled Hitler and the Nazis to come to power a few years later. Germany became isolated and an outcast in international politics. She was distrusted by the Allies. For the next decade, Germany’s role in international affairs was minor.

60 American Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles

61 European Reaction Huge crowds cheered Woodrow Wilson when he arrived in France in December After years of suffering, Europeans saw Wilson as a symbol of hope. He was the “deliverer,” the man who promised to make the world “safe for democracy.” Huge crowds cheered Woodrow Wilson when he arrived in France in December After years of suffering, Europeans saw Wilson as a symbol of hope. He was the “deliverer,” the man who promised to make the world “safe for democracy.”

62 The League of Nations Wilson’s greatest achievement at Versailles was the inclusion of the League of Nations in the Treaty. Wilson’s greatest achievement at Versailles was the inclusion of the League of Nations in the Treaty. The League of Nations would include representatives from the democratic nations. It began in 1921 with 42 states. The League of Nations would include representatives from the democratic nations. It began in 1921 with 42 states.

63 The League of Nations The League would promote peace by working cooperatively to settle disputes and to reduce armaments (the principle of collective security). The League would promote peace by working cooperatively to settle disputes and to reduce armaments (the principle of collective security). Collective security was supposed to replace the divisive secrecy of prewar power politics. Collective security was supposed to replace the divisive secrecy of prewar power politics.

64 The League of Nations The League would have five permanent members: Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States (who is noticeably absent?). The League would have five permanent members: Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States (who is noticeably absent?). Any independent nation was allowed to join, but the former Central Powers nations could not become members for several years. Any independent nation was allowed to join, but the former Central Powers nations could not become members for several years.

65 The League of Nations By WWII, 63 countries had joined the League. By WWII, 63 countries had joined the League. Member nations could present disagreements to the Permanent Court of International Justice, or World Court. Member nations could present disagreements to the Permanent Court of International Justice, or World Court.

66 The League of Nations If a member state didn’t obey the court’s judgment, it could face economic or political sanctions (not military ones). If a member state didn’t obey the court’s judgment, it could face economic or political sanctions (not military ones). If a non-member state was an aggressor, and negotiations failed, members would act collectively. If a non-member state was an aggressor, and negotiations failed, members would act collectively.

67 The League of Nations Members would join together to fight the aggressor. Wilson said the League “is definitely a guarantee of peace.” Members would join together to fight the aggressor. Wilson said the League “is definitely a guarantee of peace.” Wilson was sure the League would prevent future wars by allowing nations to talk over and arbitrate their problems rather than resorting to warfare. Wilson was sure the League would prevent future wars by allowing nations to talk over and arbitrate their problems rather than resorting to warfare.

68 The League of Nations The League of Nations was charged with administering the territories of the former Ottoman Empire through a “mandate system.” The League of Nations was charged with administering the territories of the former Ottoman Empire through a “mandate system.” In other words, the “advanced nations” (Britain and France) would govern over territories “not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world.” In other words, the “advanced nations” (Britain and France) would govern over territories “not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world.”

69 The League of Nations Mandates included Syria and Lebanon to France, and Iraq, Kuwait, Palestine, and Trans-Jordan to Britain. Mandates included Syria and Lebanon to France, and Iraq, Kuwait, Palestine, and Trans-Jordan to Britain.

70 American Reaction When Wilson returned to Washington, he had to persuade the Senate to approve the Treaty. When Wilson returned to Washington, he had to persuade the Senate to approve the Treaty. Even though most Americans favored it, a vocal minority opposed it. Even though most Americans favored it, a vocal minority opposed it. Many Senate Republicans wanted the nation to revert to isolationism. Many Senate Republicans wanted the nation to revert to isolationism. Senate Republicans were led by Henry Cabot Lodge Senate Republicans were led by Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass. Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee).

71 American Reaction Senator Lodge, and other high ranking Republicans, were furious that Wilson hadn’t made them a part of the American delegation to Versailles. The Republicans controlled the House and Senate. Senator Lodge, and other high ranking Republicans, were furious that Wilson hadn’t made them a part of the American delegation to Versailles. The Republicans controlled the House and Senate. Feeling slighted, their egos demanded political retribution. Feeling slighted, their egos demanded political retribution.

72 American Reaction Wilson thought the League stood on its own merits. Wilson thought the League stood on its own merits. Fourteen Republicans (nicknamed the irreconcilables) rejected the Treaty outright. Fourteen Republicans (nicknamed the irreconcilables) rejected the Treaty outright. The remaining Republican senators were divided between those who wanted small changes (the mild reservationists) and those who wanted drastic changes (the strong reservationists). The remaining Republican senators were divided between those who wanted small changes (the mild reservationists) and those who wanted drastic changes (the strong reservationists).

73 American Reaction Especially troubling to senators was Article 10 of the treaty, which declared members of the League were to protect the independence or territory of any other threatened member. Especially troubling to senators was Article 10 of the treaty, which declared members of the League were to protect the independence or territory of any other threatened member. Senator Lodge argued that Article 10 could involve the United States in future European wars. Senator Lodge argued that Article 10 could involve the United States in future European wars.

74 American Reaction Lodge, and several others, believed that membership in the League conflicted with Congress’s constitutional power to declare war. Lodge, and several others, believed that membership in the League conflicted with Congress’s constitutional power to declare war. Lodge wanted changes that would insure the United States remained independent of the League. Lodge wanted changes that would insure the United States remained independent of the League. He also wanted Congress to have the power to decide whether the United States would follow League policy. He also wanted Congress to have the power to decide whether the United States would follow League policy.

75 American Reaction President Wilson believed Lodge’s changes would weaken the League so he refused to compromise. President Wilson believed Lodge’s changes would weaken the League so he refused to compromise. So the President took his case to the American people. Starting in September 1919, Wilson made 37 speeches in 29 cities. He urged Americans to let their senators know they supported the Treaty and the League of Nations. So the President took his case to the American people. Starting in September 1919, Wilson made 37 speeches in 29 cities. He urged Americans to let their senators know they supported the Treaty and the League of Nations.

76 American Reaction Wilson’s pace exhausted an already physically weak man. He suffered a stroke in Colorado and was rushed back to Washington, D.C. Wilson’s pace exhausted an already physically weak man. He suffered a stroke in Colorado and was rushed back to Washington, D.C. In November 1919 the Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. Wilson mourned “It is dead and every morning I put flowers on its grave.” In November 1919 the Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. Wilson mourned “It is dead and every morning I put flowers on its grave.”

77 American Reaction The United States never did join the League of Nations. The United States never did join the League of Nations. Germany (still the most powerful country on the continent) and Russia were initially excluded from membership. Germany (still the most powerful country on the continent) and Russia were initially excluded from membership. The absence of these three important powers meant the League was never very effective in the role of global peacekeeper. The absence of these three important powers meant the League was never very effective in the role of global peacekeeper. Wilson’s dream of a world “made safe for democracy” would have to wait. Wilson’s dream of a world “made safe for democracy” would have to wait.

78 The War “Officially” Ends It wasn’t until November 8, 1921, nearly three years after the Armistice, that the United States declared an official end to the war. It wasn’t until November 8, 1921, nearly three years after the Armistice, that the United States declared an official end to the war. President Warren G. Harding stated: President Warren G. Harding stated: “…let us give our influence…to put man-kind on a higher plain…with war barred from the stage of righteous civilization.”


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