2 Section 1: From Appeasement to War What events unfolded between Chamberlain’s declaration of “peace for our time” and the outbreak of a world war?
3 Aggression Goes Unchecked 1930s Mussolini, Hitler and leaders of Japan viewed desire for peace as weakness and responded with new acts of aggressionJapan Manchuria & Eastern ChinaItaly EthiopiaHitler Goes against Treaty of VersaillesSpain Civil War
4 APPEASMENTGiving into the demands of an aggressor to keep the peace
5 Reasons for Appeasement: France demoralized and weak; could not take on Hitler without British supportBritish no desire to confront Hitler; believed terms of Treaty of Versailles were too harshWidespread pacifism: opposition to all warSaw Hitler and fascism as the lesser of two evils! …Hitler vs. Soviet Communism
7 Neutrality Acts US Foreign Policy (1930s) – Passed by Congress Forbade the sale of weapons to any nation at warNo loans to warring nationsNo Americans allowed on ships of warring nationsGOAL: to prevent US from getting involved in another war!!!!!
8 AXIS POWERS Rome-Berlin-Tokyo CapitalRomeBerlinTokyoCountryItalyGermanyJapanLeaderMussoliniHitlerTojoRome-Berlin-TokyoThey agreed to fight Soviet Communism & not interfere with one another’s plans for territorial expansion
9 Spanish Civil War1936, a local struggle in Spain polarized public opinion throughout Europe. It started in 1931, when popular unrest against the old order forced the king to leave Spain.Leftist demanded more radical reforms and the conservatives (backed by the military) rejected change.FRANCISCO FRANCO: CONSERVATIVE GENERAL LED A REVOLT THAT TOUCHED OFF A BLOODY CIVIL WAR.LOYALISTNATIONALISTSupporters of the republicFascist right-winged supportersCommunists, Socialist, and those who wanted democracyFRANCISCO FRANCOHitler and Mussolini sent arms to help FrancoSoviet Union and Spanish Loyalist helpedFRANCO triumphed in 1939.
10 German Aggression Continues Hitler continued to pursue his goal of bringing all German-speaking people into the Third Reich. He also took steps to gain living space for Germans in Eastern Europe.German AggressionMarch 1938Anschluss: Union of Austria & GermanySeptember 1938SudetenlandMarch 1939CzechoslovakiaAugust1939Nazi-Soviet PactSeptember 1939Invasion of Poland
11 “Peace for our time” British Prime Minister: Neville Chamberlain Munich Conference (Sep1938) British and French leaders chose appeasementThey caved in to Hitler’s demands and then persuaded Czechs to surrender SudetenlandThe MUNICH PACT was thought to have saved Europe from destruction
12 Nazi-Soviet Pact Germany & Soviet Union This bound Hitler & Stalin to peaceful relationsSecretly, the two agreed not to fight if the other went to war and to divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe between themThe pact was based not on friendship or respect but on mutual need
13 SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1939 WWII BEGINS Invasion of Poland A week after the Nazi-Soviet Pact, German forces invade PolandTwo days later, Britain and France declared war on GermanyWWII BEGINS
14 Section 2: The Axis Advances Which regions were attacked and occupied by the Axis powers, and what was life like under their occupation?
15 German invasion of Poland. WWII Begins! Diplomacy and compromise had not satisfied the Axis powers’ hunger for empire. Western democracies had hoped that appeasement would help establish a peaceful world order. But Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and imperial Japan plunged ahead with their plans for conquest!September 1st, 1939German invasion of Poland. WWII Begins!
17 Lightning War - tactic of overwhelming the enemy force German planes bomb all airfields,factories, and cities2. Tanks and troop transports quickly move in to eliminate all other threats on the ground (soldiers/citizens)
18 LuftwaffeGerman Air forceThey bombed:AirfieldsFactoriesCities
19 Poland DismantledUSSR took lands promised to them in the Nazi-Soviet PactThe polish army fought back unsuccessfullyWithin a month, Poland ceased to existGERMANY attacked from the WESTUSSR attacked from the EAST
21 The Spring Offensive- -Hitler passed the winter (Dec 1939-Feb 1940) without further military action.April 1940- Hitler launched the blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark, both quickly fell to the Germans.- German troops then attacked the Netherlands and Belgium.
23 Miracle at DunkirkFrance prepared for attack and hunkered down behind the Maginot LineGreat Britain sent troops to strengthen the French LinesThe Germans bypass the Maginot Line and pierce the French LinesFrench & British begin retreating towards the English Channel
24 Miracle at Dunkirk- Retreating British forces were soon trapped between the advancing Nazis and the waters of the English Channel - The British sent all available naval vessels: merchant ships, fishing boats, and even passenger ships to pluck stranded troops off the beaches of Dunkirk. - This "Armada" ferried more than 300,000 troops to safety in Britain.
28 France falls to the Germans - The German army attacked from the North and thenmarched South towards Paris.- Italy declared war on France and attacked from thesouth.- France quickly surrendered (June 22, 1940)- Germans occupied France and established a"Puppet Government" with its capital in Vichy.- The French that escaped to Britain established theirown government (in-exile) led by General Charles de Gaulle. They organized a French resistance movement to fight the Germans at home.
31 Operation Sea Lion The German plan for invading Britain. With the fall of France in June 1940, Great Britain stood alone in Western Europe.Hitler planned on Britain surrendering…British Prime Minister – Winston ChurchillHe rallied his citizens to FIGHT
32 The London Blitz Aug. 1940 - German bombers begin a daily bombardment of England's Southern coast.- The British Royal air force fought to protect the nation- The German air force changed their tactics and began to bomb civilian targets instead of military ones.- bombed cities in and around London - Germans bombed London for 57 straight days- 40,000 were killed and most of London wasdemolished
36 The Blitz fails- the bombing had the reverse effect on British citizens- they became more determined to fight the Germans- Operation Sea Lion was canceled and Hitler set his eyes on a new target - the Soviet Union.- This decision would ultimately cost German the war
37 Africa & the Balkans Axis Armies push into Northern Africa Germany’s brilliant commander “The Desert Fox” – General Erwin RommelUnder his command, the Germans force the British to retreatBy 1941, the Axis Powers controlled MOST of Western Europe!!!
38 Operation Barbarossa The German invasion of the Soviet Union After the failure of Britain, Hitler turned his military might to a new target – the SOVIET UNION!
39 3 million German troops invade the Soviet Union Stalin was caught off guard and was still hurting from the Great Purge.Soviets lost 2 ½ million soldiers trying to fend off the invadersAs the Soviets retreated, they destroyed factories and farm equipment, and burned crops to keep them out of enemy hands. This is known as scortched-earth policy.
40 Siege of Leningrad 1941, the 2 ½ year siege of Leningrad began More than a million Leningraders died in the siege, BUT THE CITY DID NOT FALL TO THE GERMANS!
41 Hitler’s New OrderGrew out of his racial obsession…belief in the “MASTER RACE”The inferior races were shoved aside for more LIVING SPACE for the Germans, the strongest of the Aryans.Occupied lands were an economic resourceConcentration Camps & Death Camps
42 American Involvement Grows When the war began, the US declared its neutralityFDR found ways around the Neutrality Acts to provide aid and supplies to BritainLEND-LEASE ACT: allowed the US to sell or lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.”
43 Japan From the late 1930s, Japan had been trying to conquer China To stop Japanese Aggression, the US banned the sale of war materials, such as iron, steel, and oil to Japan. THIS ANGERED JAPAN!
44 Pearl Harbor December 7th, 1941 “A date which will live in infamy” – FDRJapanese airplane bombed the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in HawaiiThe attack took the lives of 2,400 people and destroyed battleships and aircraftIt DIRECTLY brings the US into WWII
45 Japanese InternmentAs a result of Pearl Harbor, Japanese American and Japanese Canadians are placed in Internment Camps.
46 Section 3: The Allies Turn the Tide How did the Allies begin to push back the Axis powers?
47 Total WarWhen the nation devotes its entire resources to the war effort.
48 Governments Begin to Increase Their Power They directed economic resources into the war effortFood rationsWar bondsPrices and wages regulatedRights of citizens were limitedPress was censoredPropaganda to win public supportJapanese Internment Camps
49 “Rosie the Riveter”As men joined the military, millions of women around the world replaced them in essential war industry jobs.They built ships, planes and produced munitionsBritish and American women served in the armed forces in auxiliary roles: the drove ambulances, delivered airplanes, and decoded messages
51 Turning Point of the War The years marked the turning point of the war. The Allies won victories on four fronts- the Pacific, North Africa & Italy, the Soviet Union, and France- to push back the Axis tide.FRONT: Where the fighting takes place
52 Battle of the Coral SeaFirst time in naval history that the enemy never saw each other. Attacks were carried out on aircraft carriers. Japanese suffered their first major setback.
53 Battle of Midway Fought entirely from the air! The battle was a devastating blow to the Japanese.Japan was unable to launch any more offensive operations
54 Battle of El AlameinAllies were finally able to halt the “Desert Fox”
55 SicilyJuly 1943 Allied forces land in Sicily. Italian forces were defeated within a month. Mussolini was overthrown.
56 Stalingrad Major turning point in the Soviet Union Germans were stalled outside of Moscow and LeningradOne of costliest battles in the warStalin was determined to defend “his” cityGerman surrendered!
57 D-Day June 6th, 1944 Allied invasion of France Within a month, all of France was FREEIt was the largest amphibious (land & water) invasion in historyMore than 156,000 Allied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy
61 The Big Three Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin After the US entered the war, the Allied leaders met periodically to hammer out their strategy.In 1942, the “Big Three” agreed to focus on finishing the war in Europe before trying to end the war in Asia.The Allied distrusted on another. None of them wanted to risk the breakdown of their alliance, however.
62 Allies Continue to Advance For two years, Allied bombers bombarded German military bases, factories, railroad, oil depots, and cities. The goal of this type of bombing was to cripple Germany’s industries and destroy the morale of its civilians.
63 Battle of the Bulge Last massive counterattack by the Germans German defeat seemed inevitable
64 Yalta ConferenceAt the Yalta Conference, the three leaders agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan within three months of Germany’s surrender.In return, Churchill and FDR promised Stalin that he could take possession of several areas and that Germany would be divided into FOUR zones.
65 Section 4: Victory in Europe & the Pacific How did the Allies finally defeat the Axis powers?
66 Nazis DefeatedBy 1945, the Allies had crossed the Rhine into Western Germany.From the east, Soviet troops closed in on Berlin.American & Russian soldiers met and shook hands. All over Europe, Axis armies began to surrender.In Italy, guerrillas captured and executed Mussolini.Hitler committed SuicideMay 7, 1945 Germany Surrendered
69 Why were the Allies able to defeat the Axis powers? Location of Germany – they had to fight on several fronts simultaneouslyHitler made poor military decisionsHe underestimated the army of the Soviet UnionThe enormous productive capacity of the USAllied bombing hindered German productionOil was scarce for the Luftwaffe
70 Struggle for the Pacific Until mid-1942, the Japanese had won an uninterrupted series of victories.The Japanese controlled much of Southeast Asia and many Pacific islands.By 1942, the Japanese had gained control of the Philippines.
71 Bataan Death MarchBy May 1942, Japanese soldiers killed several hundred American soldiers and as many as 10,000 Filipino soldiers as they were forced to march 65 miles.
72 “Island-Hopping”The Goal: to recapture some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others.The captured islands served as stepping stones to the next objective.The American forces were led by General Douglas MacArthur.By 1944, US Allied forces gradually moved north to Japan.
76 Manhattan ProjectThe race to harness the Atomic Bomb
77 Atomic BombHarry Truman had taken office after FDR died unexpectedly on April 12th, 1945.He had the decision to invade and risk American lives or to drop the bomb.He decided to use the new weapon against Japan.
78 Hiroshima August 6, 1945 First bomb dropped Instantly killed more than 70,000 people
81 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki More than 40,000 people killed instantly .
82 Japanese SurrenderFinally on August 10, 1945, Emperor Hirohito forced the government to surrender.September 2, 1945, the formal peace treaty was signed on board the American battleship Missouri.
83 Section 5: The End of World War II What issues arose in the aftermath of WWII and how did new tensions develop?
84 Chapter 17: Section 5 "From World War to Cold War" Casualties of WWIIUnited States292,000Britain389,000Soviet Union22 million(soldiers and civilians)Germany8 millionWorldwide - 75 million died as result of WWII
86 War Crimes Trials- Axis Leaders were tried for "crimes against humanity"- trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany- 177 Germans tried/142 found guilty- a number or top Nazis were sentenced to death- Rudolf Hess: Deputy to the Fuhrer and Nazi Party Leader- Hermann Goering - head of Luftwaffe (Air Force) President of Reichstag, Director of "Final solution"
88 Courtroom scene showing defendants in the Major War Criminals Trial
89 The United Nations- The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945. - Designed to bean internationalorganization that ensures world peace.
90 The Security Council (major force in the UN) - made up of 5 permanent members- the US, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China- designed to ensure peace between major powers - The UN does much more than peacekeeping- They take on many of the world's problems: poverty, prevention of disease, improving education, etc.
91 The War Time Alliance Breaks Apart - conflicting ideals and mutual distrust led to a break in the alliance between the US, Britain and the Soviet Union- a cold war soon develops
92 Cold War- The political, military, and economic competition for global control between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991- a state of political conflict using any means short of armed warfare
93 Europe, the focus of the Cold War - Stalin wanted to control Eastern Europe and spread communism into the area- The Soviets already had soldiers in all nations to the east of Berlin, Germany- Stalin promised to allow "free elections" in these nations, but Churchill and Truman didn't trust him- by 1948 Stalin had installed pro-soviet governments across Europe - Churchill said the Soviets has put in place an "Iron Curtain" dividing Europe (democratic/communist)
95 Truman DoctrinePresident Truman announced a new policy to Congress- said the United States would "support any free people who were resisting outside pressures"- made it clear that America would resist Soviet expansion in Europe and elsewhere in the world
96 Containment- Idea of containing communism within its own boundaries as a way to reduce its influence.- US policy from 1947 – 1980’s"Domino Theory” :if we allowed one nation to fall to the Communist the rest of the world would do the same.
98 The Marshall Plan - postwar Europeans faced poverty and hunger - postwar Europeans faced poverty and hunger- to promote democracy the US offered a massive aid package, called the Marshall Plan- food and economic assistance were delivered to those countries seeking to rebuild- Billions of dollars poured into Europe- Stalin forbid Eastern European countries fromaccepting any aid from the US
104 The Berlin Airlift - Stalin tried to force the Allies out of Berlin by blockadingevery railroad and highwayinto the city from- Massive US airlifts keep thecity and citizens alive by flying food and fuel into the city 24 hours a day for one year.- Soviets eventually lifted theblockade
105 Military Alliances- in 1949, the United States, Canada, and 9 Western European countries formed NATO(NATO) - North Atlantic TreatyOrganization- members pledged to help one another if they were attacked
106 Warsaw Pact - formed by the Soviet Union in 1955 - included USSR and 7 satellite countries
107 Arms Race- each side in the Cold War armed itself to withstand an attack by the other.- USSR built their first atom bomb in 1949 and the race was on to produce as many nuclear weapons as possible