Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Warfare The Rise of Nazism and War In Europe Marine Officer Instructor."— Presentation transcript:
Evolution of Warfare The Rise of Nazism and War In Europe Marine Officer Instructor
Reading Assignment,A Military History of the Western World, pp. 364-376.
Learning Objectives Know and trace Hitler’s rise to power and explain his subjugation of the German General Staff and the officer corps
Adolf Hitler “Political misjudgments and wrong turns are like Tuberculosis - hard to detect and easy to cure in the beginning and easy to diagnose and very hard to cure at the end.” - Machiavelli
The Early Years Born in Braunau, Austria-Hungary in 1889 As a boy, lacked capacity for intellectual, emotional, artistic or sexual development Age 15, developed political and social prejudices carried into reign as Fuhrer –Dropped out of school to become artist, failed –Vienna Years (1907 - 1913), developed ideology
The Soldier; Radical Statesman 24 May 1913 - Flees Vienna as Austrian Army deserter WWI - Regimental Messenger in German Army on Western Front Corporal, wounded twice, Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class for Bravery Post WWI, joined espionage section of Armistice Army of Germany 1919 joined “The German Workers party” Blamed outcome of war on Jews and Marxists
The Soldier; Radical Statesman Excelled due to Anti-Semitism, opposition to democracy, and “leadership and followership” principle Oratorical skill and propaganda techniques unmatched “To lead means to be able to move masses”. (Hitler, Mein Kampf)
Rise to Power Ran public conspiracy against Weimar Republic with Nazi Party Utilized aid of Gen Erich von Ludendorf March disrupted, Hitler sentenced to 5 years Wrote Mein Kampf (“My fight”) in prison 1925, reshaped party along legal grounds 1932 renamed the “National Socialist German Workers” 1933 became Chancellor and formed a Government 1934 Purged the party and when Field Marshall Hindeburg died, abolished the President and became Furher of the German People.
Rise to Power “By this oath we again bind our lives to a man, through whom – this is our belief – superior forces act in fullfillment of destiny. Do not seek Adolf Hitler with your brains; all of you will find him with strength of your hearts. Adolf Hitler is Germany and Germany is Adolf Hitler. Germany is our God on earth.” Rudolf Hess in swearing in the entire party
Preparation for War Economic recovery under Hitler centered around primary object of war preparation Skill in foreign policy misled other European powers as to ultimate goal of expansion
Hitler’s Goal To establish a German Continental System under Germany Liberate Germany from the shackles of international loan-capitalism To unite Germanic peoples in the Third Reich To Establish in Eastern Europe the German Lebensraum (living space)
Monetary Beliefs/Actions Refuse foreign interest bearing loans and base German currency on production not gold Obtain imports by direct exchange of goods – barter – subsidize when necessary Stop “Freedom of Exchanges” shifting private fortunes from one country to another according to political situation Create money when men and material were available for work instead of running into debt by borrowing it.
Monetary Beliefs/Actions Aimed at the US because we had the bulk of the world’s gold. “Holy War”against National Socialism by Jewish laywers 1937 Stock Market collasped President Roosevelt “Quarantine Speech” US and Britain challenged the Barter system
War and its Aftermath After series of annexations, alliances, and agreements, Hitler began Blitzkrieg toward Poland in September of 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany –Mutual aid treaties with Poland –Change in submissive attitudes in both countries
Blitzkrieg was born in Poland “Lighting Warfare” Attack enemy at weakest point Combination of lateral and forward movements large mechanized ground forces Coordinated use of airpower double envelopment
War and its Aftermath At peak of war, Hitler controlled territory from Arctic to North Africa Began “Final Solution to Jewish Question” “Battle of Britain” signaled turn of events
War and its Aftermath June 1941: Hitler invades Russia –“General Winter” aids Russia –Germany suffers losses at Moscow and Stalingrad 1942 - 1943 US joins war in December 1941 Hitler’s Axis crumbles with Mussolini’s death and Allied invasion of 1944
War and its Aftermath Assassination attempt by Hitler’s Officers (July 1944) With Russians near Berlin on 30 April 1945, Hitler commits suicide with new wife, Eva Braun