Presentation on theme: "Workshop Climate Change Related Migration 14-15 May 2009 Statham Campus USP Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Pacific Cities: Floods in Urban Fiji."— Presentation transcript:
Workshop Climate Change Related Migration May 2009 Statham Campus USP Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Pacific Cities: Floods in Urban Fiji Dr. Manoranjan Mohanty Development Studies The University of the South Pacific Suva, Fiji
Presentation Outline 1. Introduction 2. Climate Change and Natural Disasters 3. Hydro-meteorological Disasters (Floods) in PICs 4. Floods in Urban Fiji: Ba and Nadi town 5. Impacts of recent Floods in Fiji 6. Aftermath and Response 7. Mitigation Measures 8. Concluding Remarks
INTRODUCTION Climate change, a consequence of global bio-physical changes, is a challenge to humankind. It is a human-induced natural phenomenon. It finds expressions both at global (macro) and local (micro) scales. No reduction in emission of green house gases (GHGs) such as CO2 especially by the industrialized nations except few e.g. Switzerland, Germany & Poland. Rather, it is increasing in most of the countries. Consequently, global warming and gradual sea level rise & climatic variability is likely to cause more hydro-meteorological disasters. It is said, even a 1 metre sea level rise would make at least 56 million people environmental refugees in the developing world. The IOM estimated that by the turn of the century about 1 billion people will be environmentally displaced from their original habitats. Flooding is a global concern & increasing in its intensity. It is forecasted that temp. increase of 3-4 degrees centigrade could result in displacement of nearly 330 million people only through flooding.
Pacific Island Countries PICs are the most vulnerable nations to climate-related natural disasters particularly, the small atoll states with low elevation above the sea level (Tuvalu 1m., Kiribati 2m., & Marshall Islands 1-2m.) & low lying areas of other countries. As Kofi Annan said: ‘the countries most vulnerable are least able to protect themselves. They also contribute least to the global emissions of green house gases. Without action they will pay a high price for the actions of others.’ (UNDP, 2008). These countries are doubly vulnerable to climate/ environmental change. Apart from the global (macro) climate change and associated natural disasters, they are affected by local (micro) climatic variability that have serious socio-economic, environmental, health and developmental implications. The impact is more on cities/ towns due to overconcentration/ high population density and over crowding, rapid urban sprawl and haphazard growth, poor/ inadequate drainage and growing environmental degradation.
Cont…… The effects of climate change can be direct and indirect. The direct effects are sea level rise (causing coastal flooding, erosion, inundation and salinisation), increasing rainfall intensity, and the occurrence of hydro- meteorological disasters. The natural hazard -induced conditions are likely to cause forced displacement of people and migration to secured places and largely towards urban centers and across the national borders. In the PICs, on an average, over 100,000 people are affected and 300 people die annually due to natural disasters.
Map of Fiji
Map of Suva
Hydro-meteorological Disasters in Pacific countries Tropical Cyclone Local storm surge High intensity rain Floods (river, estuarine and coastal) Flash flood Droughts Land/ mud slide
Relative Intensity of Natural Disasters in Selected Pacific Island Countries Country Cyclone Flood Droughts Landslide Tsunami Earth-quake Cook Is. M L S L M L Fiji S S M S S M PNG L S M S S S Samoa L S L S S M Solomon Is. S S L S S S Tonga S M M L S L Vanuatu S S L S S S Source: Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre. S: Severe; M: Medium; L : Low
Impacts of Natural Disasters in Pacific Countries Top 5 Pacific Island Countries affected by Natural Disasters Country Affected People Percent (%) PNG 644, Fiji 304, Vanuatu 84, Kiribati 84, Tonga 23, Total Melanesia 1, 035, Other Countries (7) 158, Total Pacific 1, 194,
No. of Deaths in PICs Due to Natural Disasters Country No. of Death Percent (%) PNG 2, Fiji FSM Vanuatu Cook Island Total Melanesian 2, Other Countries (7) Total Pacific
Flooding in Pacific Countries/ Cities 1. PNG (Port Moresby) 2006: N. W part of central province, 10, 000 people homeless, 1 death, population displacement, starvation as local food gardens destroyed. 2007: Oro Province, caused by tropical cyclone Guba, 163 people were killed, state of emergency declared. 2008: Northern coast, caused by high tide, 10,000 of people displaced, 50,000-80,000 people were affected. 2. Solomon Islands (Honiara) 2008: Torrential rain in Honiara caused floods in the main city. China Town was worst affected. 2009: Flood due to heavy rain in Guadalcanal. 8 dead and 8 missing. People affected: 3,000-5,000. Many evacuated to higher ground. 3. Vanuatu 2009: Caused by rainfall, in North Ambrym. 10 villages and 950 people affected (239 households).
Cont…….. 4. Samoa (Apia) 2001: River flooding affected nearly 30,000 people and cost WST$ 11 million. Heavy flash floods inundated the lowlands around the town of Lepea and Moataa and rivers and streams also overflowed causing flooding along the Upolu coast. Flooding inundated large part of Apia urban area. The Samoa Water Authority estimated USD 1.5 million damages to water supply system. 2003: Heavy flooding occurred in Apia by heavy rain. 2006: Flooding in Apia by rivers Vaisigano, Vailima and Vaivase after heavy rain.
Cont…….. 5. Marshall Islands (Majuro) 2008: About 600 people were affected in Majuro by storm surge floods. 6. Kiribati (South Tarawa) 2006: Occurred in South Tarawa. 7. Fiji 2004: Damage estimated more than F$ 30 million. 2007: Affected Vanua Levu and the Western part of Viti Levu. Labasa, Nadi town and Sigatoka valley affected. About 900 people were evacuated to 11 shelters. Damages to houses, schools, and crops. 2009: Ba and Nadi town severely affected, 11 died and more than 10,000 people were forced in to evacuation centers.
Flooding in South Tarawa (Kiribati, April 2006)
Flooding at the Lagoon Breeze Hotel, South Tarawa (Kiribati)
Flooding in (Urban) Fiji Fiji witnesses twin climatic disasters almost annually: floods & droughts. Floods occur in wet season (Nov. to April) & droughts in May to October. Fiji has highest incidence of tropical cyclones in the region with an average of one cyclone a year. Over last decade, damage caused by cyclones in Fiji estimated at nearly F$ 500million. The rivers: Rewa, Nadi, Ba, Sigatoka are prone to frequent flooding and Fiji has witnessed 8 major floods between The economy suffers an average annual loss of F$ 20 m due to floods. The situation of poverty, food insecurity & diseases (diarrhoea, typhoid, dengue fever) aggravates. The urban areas in Fiji: Suva, Nadi, Ba, Lautoka, Labasa, Tavua, Rakiraki, & Sigatoka are prone to flooding. The recent devastating floods in Fiji that occurred in Jan in Central, Western and Northern Division displaced about 10, 500 people to 156 evacuation centres & killed 11 persons. Western Viti Levu: Ba, Nadi, & Sigatoka towns were worst affected.
Causes of Flooding Tropical cyclone/ disturbances Storm surge High intensity rainfall Prolonged rainfall High tide Sea waves
Factors for Vulnerability to Flooding Poor/ inadequate and constricted drainage system. Blockage of drains by solid wastes in urban areas. Uncontrolled logging, deforestation, soil erosion & silting of river beds. Removal of sand, gravel and boulders from river beds for supporting construction industry. Small river catchment area. Steep terrain conditions. Low lying coastal areas.
Flooding in Ba Town ( Jan. 2009)
Flooding in main street, Ba town (Fiji, Jan )
Flooding in Ba Town (Jan. 2009)
Flooding in Nadi Town (Jan )
Flooding at Namotomoto village, Nadi (Jan )
Road condition after flooding, Nadi town
Nadi Town after Flooding (Jan. 2009)
Damage Costs of 2009 Floods in Fiji by Sector and Division Sector Costs Share Central Western Northern (million F$) % % % % Sugar Roads Crops Water& Sewer Electricity Education Telecomm Drainage Livestock Health Total
Aftermath and Response Fiji received massive response from Governments and NGOs. Financial relief assistance was received from various Governments: Australia, the EU, New Zealand, USA, the UK, China, India, France, Korea and Pacific countries such as : PNG, New Caledonia, Kiribati, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and others. Response received from many national and international NGOs such as Red Cross and Red Crescent Society, the Rotary Club, Save the Children Fiji, Fiji Water Foundation and others.
Mitigation Measures Intensification of Flood management measures needed: - structural (river bed dredging, deepening and widening, construction of river dams and reservoirs) - non-structural measures (controlled development, early warning and forecasting, prevention of extraction of gravels, boulders, sands from river bank). Hazard mapping and integrated land & water management needed. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) in river basin catchment areas. National Action Programmes: A National Disaster Relief and Rehabilitation Fund with F$ 2. 6 million in A National Disaster Committee was established. A National Disaster Management Plan, 1995 A National Disaster Management Act, 1998 Establishment of a national Disaster Management Council (NDMC).
Concluding Remarks With increasing global warming, the sea level is expected to rise. Climate change, the largest environmental change in this century is likely to intensify hydro-meteorological hazards: storms, tidal surges, floods and droughts and will lead to environmentally-induced population movements/ eco-migration in the coming years. Climate change is a human–induced phenomenon. Much of issues are intricately linked to social and human dimensions and the solution to these problems therefore lie in the social and human dynamics/ action. A massive environmental exodus and relocation from low lying and climatically hazardous areas to relatively secured ground and especially towards the urban centers are expected to happen in the future. The environmental change and exodus likely to cause rapid urbanisation. No single set of approach can provide solution to the ill effects of climate change. A mixed technical, behavioral and policy approaches is needed in minimising the effects of natural hazards.
Cont……. Sound policy measures relating to mitigation and adaptation need to be in place. Integrated policies and planning linking energy, transport, environment, health policies are most needed. Intensification of environmental education and awareness campaigns is called for and NGOs have a greater role to play in this regard. Changes in human attitude and behaviour towards environment; greater community participation, and sound development policies & planning is called for reversing the meteorological events and building a sustainable society.