3Ethics in Photojournalism Case Studies:Photo processingPhoto manipulationTragic subjects Reporting bias
4Case studies in ethics: Photo processing After O.J. Simpson’s arrest on murder chargers, both Newsweek and Time ran articles with Simpson’s mugshot
5Case studies in ethics: Photo processing In 2003, Patrick Schneider was fired over his processing of photos
6Case studies in ethics: Photo processing Newsweek ran a cropped version of the image as an editorial cover:
7Case studies in ethics: Photo manipulation National Geographic compressed this image of the Pyramids to fit it onto their 1982 cover
8Case studies in ethics: Photo manipulation LA Times ran the top photo by Brian Walski. It was a composite of two separate photos (bottom)
9Case studies in ethics: Photo manipulation Allan Detrich was fired for his modified photo, in which he removed a pair of legs
10Case studies in ethics: Photo manipulation Questions to ask:What are we allowed to adjust?What can we definitely not adjust?Where is the line drawn?Tool-based?Change in image content?Intent?Different standards for type of publication?
11Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects Robert Kennedy moments after being shot by assassin Sirhan Sirhan
12Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects A woman and her child fall from a collapsed fire escape in Boston. The child survived the fall; the woman did not.A man jumps from the World Trade Center during the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
13Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects The family of Edward Romero grieves over his body – the 5-year-old Romero died in an accidental drowning
14Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects Kevin Carter took this image of a starving child in Sudan
15Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects In this Reuters image, a man discards bodies of victims in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake
16Case studies in ethics: Tragic subjects Questions to ask:Are graphic images appropriate?Should they be handled specially?Depend on the publication audience?Taking photos while someone is in need?Taking photos while someone is in need, but not being able to help anyway?Privacy intrustion into victims?Benefits of publicizing tragedy?Is it an editorial decision?
17Case studies in ethics: Bias A US national receives medical treatment during the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake
18Case studies in ethics: Bias In 2000, NY Times ran this image of a supposed Palestinian, with the implication that the Israeli policeman had beat him. The victim was in fact a Jewish student, who had been beaten by Arabs.
19Case studies in ethics: Bias President George W. Bush holds a turkey during Thanksgiving dinner at a base in Iraq. The turkey was a decorative centerpiece, and not edible. Food was actually served on cafeteria-style steam trays.
20Case studies in ethics: Bias Arthur Rothstein moved the skull from its original position (right) and onto a dryer flat area (left), in a photo series documenting drought conditions in South Dakota.
21Case studies in ethics: Bias Lebanese air raid photo op:
22Case studies in ethics: Bias Avoid bias:Fully research cutline infoFully disclose all relevant infoAvoid sensationalismAvoid staged photos, by yourself and by subjectsMoving objects around?