2 Brainstorm:What impact would the war have on American minorities and women?
3 Objective:Describe the economic & social changes that reshaped American life during World War IISummarize both the opportunities and discrimination African Americans and other minorities experienced during the war
4 How did the war and its immediate aftermath affect the following?
5 1. Labor Defense Industries boom Unemployment at 1.2% Able to save $ because their pay went up 10% even with price fixing & inflationSome complaints about long hours, not enough pay & night shiftsPeople buy war bonds35% or 6M women in work force
6 2. Agriculture 1940s provides good growing weather Improvements in machinery & fertilizersCrop prices increase / farm income triplesCrop production increases by 50%Some farmers pay off mortgage
7 3. Population CentersOne of greatest mass migration in history, look at page 5911941 to M newcomers to CATowns with defense industries triple in sizeAfrican Am look for jobs in the NorthSoldiers training in different parts of US
8 4. Family Life Soldiers at war / moms home alone Children taken care of by relatives or first day care centersTeenagers run into troubleMarriage increases & Baby BoomTension with returning soldiers
9 5. Returning GIsServiceman’s Readjustment Act or GI Bill of Rights helps with education or training for veterans50% take advantage / get education or trainingLower interest rates or loans to help buy homes, farms or businesses
10 How did these groups react to discrimination and racism during and after the war?
11 6. African AmericansMajority of Southern Af. Am move to Midwest for better jobs1940 to 1944, Af Am increase from 16% to 30% in work forceFarmer & CORE in 1942 (Congress of Racial Equality / interracial) founded to confront urban segregation in the North / sit-insRace riot in Chicago: all is not well
12 7. Mexican Americans 1943 Zoot Suit riots in LA Refer to page 593 11 sailors claimed they had been attacked by Mexicans / 1 weekMexicans believe their sacrifices would lead to a better future
13 8. Japanese AmericansFear of J-A sabotaging or mining coastal harbors & poisoning food supplyWar Dept orders General Delos Emmons, the military governor of Hawaii to evacuate J-A from HawaiiEmmons declines because 37% of population is J-A. / Economy & war effort / 1% internment camps
14 8. Japanese Americans110K J-A from CA, WA, OR, & AZ sent to internment camps in CA, ID, WY, UT, CO, AZ, & AKSupreme Ct ruled this was justifiedKorematsu v. United States1965 Japanese American Citizens League gets Congress to allocate survivors $38MRonald Reagan & Congress allocate $20K to each survivor