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Animation of Tidal Elevations in the Pacific

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Tides and Tsunamis Gravitational forces of moon and sun Equilibrium theory of Tides Dynamic theory of Tides (Reality): tidal patterns, confined basins Tsunamis: generating forces Effects of tsunamis Warning systems, defenses

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Equilibrium Theory Tides are always in equilibrium with the gravitational pull of the moon and Earth is a planet covered in water. Assumption

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Gravity and centrifugal force (also called “ tractive forces ” ) Together:The earth-moon system Equilibrium theory of tides

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Tides: The moon and the sun together Spring tide Neap tide

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semidiurnal diurnal composite + =

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Dynamic Theory Waves travel at a fixed waves speed There are continents and rotation Needs to account for:

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See video

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Tidal circulation Tides progress around basins, counterclockwise in S hemisphere and clockwise in N hemisphere

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Animation of Tidal Elevations in the Pacific

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Inertia + continents cause the tidal motion on the planet to differ markedly from the “ motion ” of the forces. We can calculate the water motion knowing the forces, but we cannot say that the shape of the water is the same as the “ shape ” of the forces. For this reason tides must not be visualized as bulges standing under the sun and moon. But rather as very long waves over the sea forced by the gravitational-centrifugal forces associated with the moon-sun-earth system.

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Tides in confined basins Increase tidal range (the difference between high and low tide) Examples --Bay of Fundy, Canada --Northern Gulf of California, Mexico Tidal bores - wave of water moving upstream - result of high-tide crest entering confined inlet

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Bay of Fundy: map 2.416

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Bay of Fundy tides Extreme tides (10m or more) found where small marine basin adjoins large ocean –Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia –Gulf of California (in most places, tides are 1 to a few meters in range)

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Shock Waves and Tidal Bores are similar!

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Tidal bore: Severn River, England 2.452

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Tidal ecosystems Rise and fall of tides creates stressful environments for intertidal marine organisms

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Tidal ecosystems Others take refuge in tide pools, where water remains even at low tide

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Tsunami Japanese for harbor (tsu) wave (nami) Caused by displacements of water landslides into the sea submarine earthquakes submarine volcanoes asteroid impacts “ Shallow-water ” wave: disturbs water all the way to bottom

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Tsunami of April 1, 1946 Earthquake triggers tsunami with devastating local and distant effects

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The speed of the tsunami wave C = sqrt(g d) C = speed, g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/sec/sec) d = depth (depth of Pacific ~4,600 m) C= sqrt(9.8 * 4,600) Speed = 212 meters per second; 472 mph Alaska to Hawaii in 5 hours!

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Locally, the tsunami washed away the 5-story lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Alaska Before… and after

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Hilo, Hawaii, 1946: Tsunami crossed the north Pacific to become one of Hawaii ’ s worst natural disasters

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Hilo, Hawaii, 1946

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Tsunami breaking over main pier in Hilo, 1946 This man did not survive

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Chile earthquake, 1960 numerical simulation of tsunami 8.5 hours 1.5 hours16.5 hours 23.5 hours

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Aftermath of local tsunami: Chiloe, Chile, 1960

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Distant effects of the Chile earthquake: tidal wave aftermath, Hilo Hawaii

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More tsunami damage in Hilo, 1960

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Tsunamis: what can be done? Early warning system for evacuation (if EQ is distant) Coastal zoning. Get development out of the way. Example: Hilo, Hawaii Defense. Protective walls. Example: Taro, Japan

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