2 Starvation and shortages led to rebellions throughout Russia. Describe the Revolution in Russia and the reorganization of the country into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.During the Great War (World War I), Russia was still controlled by the tsar and a wealthy aristocracy.The poorly led and equipped Russian army suffered crushing losses in fighting the Germans.Starvation and shortages led to rebellions throughout Russia.Citizens formed councils (called soviets), and seized army barracks and factories.Amid the turmoil, the tsar abdicated power to a new Provisional Government.The competing groups that fought for control, included the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks (the two wings of the Social Democratic Party), and the Social Revolutionaries.Lenin’s Bolsheviks ultimately took control and expanded their power during the October Revolution.The Communists, as the Bolsheviks were called then, defeated their enemies due to the new Red Army and leadership of Leon Trotsky.The new government first recognized the independence of many regions and then combined with them to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
3 By World War I, Japan’s economy was growing rapidly. How do China and Japan have different “destinies” in the twentieth century? Do they react differently to pressures from the West?China and Japan shared a common heritage in many ways, but in the modern period they were on a “collision course.”Chinese and Japanese rising populations create social & economic changes facing each country.In China in 1908, the Empress Dowager Cixi died and the Qing Dynasty collapsedSun Yat-sen took over the government, but his government was powerless due to the control of local military strongmen called warlords.Sun Yat-sen resigned and a powerful warlord, Yuan Shikai, took over.By World War I, Japan’s economy was growing rapidly.Japan also used the war as an opportunity to seize territory in China.In 1915 Japan presented China with the Twenty-One Demands that would have made China a Japanese protectorate.The Chinese violently protested these Twenty-One Demands and thirty years of fighting began between the two countries as a result.The end of the First World War peace conference resulted in Japan keeping former German territory in China.This was triggered by a student-led protest movement called the May Fourth Movement.
4 What promises do the British make to different groups during World War I? What are the results of these promises? Is the conflict that results in the Middle East based on religious differences?There were diplomatic “promises” made by the British during World War I to the Arabs and the Zionists.After the Ottoman Empire victory at Gallipoli, the British decided to defeat the Ottoman Empire from within by offering the prince of Mecca, Hussein ibn Ali, a kingdom of his own in the Middle East if he led a revolt against the Ottomans. Hussein’s son, Faisal, led an Arab army against the Ottoman Empire in the Arab Revolt of 1916 contributing to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire.The Arabs and Ottomans were both Muslim, and therefore the Christian British convincing these Muslim parties to fight each other clearly shows that the motives were political and not religious.Meanwhile other promises were made to another group, European Zionists.The European Jewish population developed a nationalist movement called Zionism.This movement, led by Theodore Herzl, had the goals of combating anti-Semitism and returning to the ancestral homeland in Palestine or the Jewish “homeland.”In 1917, Foreign Secretary Sir Alfred Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration where he states that the British government supported the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.The current conflicts in Palestine are a result of these British promises and were not born out of religious difference but political choices and promises made by the British at the conclusion of the First World War.
5 What were the causes of the First World War? The three most important causes of the Great War were nationalism, the system of military alliances, and German plans to dominate Europe which coupled both militarism and imperialism. (NIMS)Nationalism was both a unifying and a divisive element in European society.Because of nationalist sentiments, Europeans saw war as an opportunity for independence and as revenge for previous defeats.Europeans also had forgotten their fear of war, as most nineteenth-century wars were quick, inexpensive in both lives and matériel, and victorious.The tangle of diplomatic and military ties created a web of connections between countries pledging mutual support in case of war.Those alliances quickly became battle lines after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the Austrian declaration of war on Serbia. France, Great Britain, and Russia were the primary combatants for the Entente Powers; Germany and Austria-Hungary were the Central Powers. German plans for European domination called for quick victories against France and Russia and hinged on British and American neutrality.Technology encouraged German aggression, as precise large-scale mobilization by railroad was essential to German strategy.
6 Describe social changes in Europe and the United States during the 1920s, particularly the changes that resulted from the First World War.Although most of Western Europe and the United States wanted simply to return to prewar stability and conservatism, the war had initiated changes that could not be reversed.White-collar workers and the middle class grew substantially, but the working class declined. European refugees migrated in large numbers until the United States, Canada, and Australia enacted immigration restrictions.Women’s lives changed the most. Many women had joined the work force as wage earners during the war and were reluctant to abandon those jobs.After the war, Western European and U.S. women also won the right to vote.Technological innovations such as aircraft, automobiles, radio, home appliances, and electricity all changed people’s lives.The cinema and jazz transformed popular culture.Advances in physics and the social sciences fundamentally altered Western cultures’ view of themselves, often in very unsettling ways.The Great War’s scars transformed the physical environment, as did dams, irrigation projects, and continued industrialization and suburbanization.
7 Many of these new nations were unstable and fragile entities. Describe the peace treaties ending the First World War and some of their long-term implications.The Treaty of Versailles was a unilateral document, dictated by France, Britain, and the United States.The treaty had very little input from other European countries, and none at all from nations such as Japan.The Central Powers took no part in the treaty except to sign it.The treaty’s punitive measures included large but undefined monetary reparations, a “guilt clause” in which Germany accepted all blame for the war, and the loss of German territory.Woodrow Wilson’s plan for self-determinism called for new European nations to be formed along ethnic and linguistic lines.Germany returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, and the Polish state was recreated from eastern Germany.Austria-Hungary and Russia lost territory that became Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and almost a dozen other new nations.Many of these new nations were unstable and fragile entities.The breakup of the Ottoman Empire also left that region unstable, with Allied nations weaker than they had been even before the war.
8 Describe World War I and its aftermath in the Middle East During the Great War (World War I), the Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Middle East.The Ottoman desire to use World War I as a means to gain Russian territory led to the Ottomans signing an alliance with Germany.After a disastrous defeat at Gallipoli, Britain allied itself with Arab leaders in an attempt to defeat the Ottomans. Britain offered Prince Hussein ibn Ali his own kingdom in exchange for Arab assistance. A revolt led by Hussein’s son Faisal weakened the Ottoman Empire but did not affect the war in Europe.While that intrigue was being carried out, the Zionist movement was seeking a Jewish homeland in Palestine.Zionists received widespread sympathy and the support of the British government in the Balfour Declaration. Turkey, led by Mustapha Kemal, established itself from the remains of the dismantled Ottoman Empire and instituted many progressive reforms, turning his country into a secular republic.The Arab-speaking areas of the former Ottoman Empire were reorganized under the mandate system, as were Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq.British dominance over Egypt continued, in spite of a declaration of Egyptian independence in Encouraged by the Balfour Declaration,Jews moved in large numbers to Palestine, creating the root of a long-standing Middle Eastern dispute.