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Crisis Management Step Two of the Decision Tree Chapter Nine.

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1 Crisis Management Step Two of the Decision Tree Chapter Nine

2 Public Tragedies, Relief and Humanitarian Aid Crisis management is directed at populations and communities in urgent need of resources due to a disaster or public tragedy. Crisis Management has two functions: (1) Secure the scene and engage in rescue and recovery – first responders (2) Provide relief programs to populations in urgent need and reconstruct communities in the disaster aftermath.

3 Social Work and Disaster Management Social workers use the methods of policy, advocacy, community, and management practice to respond to disasters and public tragedies. Policies establish and guide relief programs. Managers administer emergency service organizations and co-ordinate relief services; resources must be sustained and maintained overtime.

4 Social Work and Disaster Management Communities plan for disasters and respond in a timely manner to unfolding events; material goods and human resources are deployed in the crisis aftermath; communities need to be rebuilt and the populace supported by concrete services. Advocacy is used to raise awareness and keep the public focused on unmet need. Advocacy is used to secure funds, material resources, and volunteers to aid with the relief effort.

5 Definition Disaster Social workers respond to domestic and international crises. A disaster is an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering (FEMA). Disasters are often caused by nature or may have human origins.

6 Disasters-Continued Disasters often destroy homelands and displace people. A disaster has the potential of permanently damaging ecological systems; irreparable damage to a sustainable environment. Examples of man-made disasters are: wars, civil disturbances and acts of genocide. A combination of human error and “nature” are explosions, fires, accidents involving hazardous materials, drought (poor farming practices), transportation incidents (air, sea, rail auto), nuclear accidents.

7 Public Tragedy A disaster becomes a public tragedy when it focuses national or international attention and mourning. A public tragedy elicits a societal response and collective action. Disasters reflect the quality of adaptability and resiliency between people and their communities.

8 Response Levels Crisis Management Disasters have municipal, regional, national, and international levels of emergency response and law enforcement. Disasters require immediate response and long term recovery. Social workers are employed by governmental and non-governmental organizations. They work with displaced persons and political refugees. Some work to rebuild local communities affected by disasters and others work in international organizations or ministries.

9 Disaster Typology Acute and Gradual There are two types of disasters (1) those that are unexpected (acute) and (2) those that are predictable (gradual in the making) and therefore preventive action is possible. Some disasters are gradual in their making i.e. drought can lead to famine; local diseases may become epidemics, a downturn in the economy may lead to economic depression, war can lead to genocide and ecological destruction. Disasters that are gradual in the making may be averted through preventive intervention.

10 Disaster Typology Acute and Gradual Acute disasters (whether man-made or due to nature) are unexpected. They include hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, blizzards, mud slides, tidal waves, forest fires, oil spills, building collapse, explosions, hazardous material or transportation incident, nuclear accident.

11 Scale, Location Disasters are, by definition, measured on a scale calibrated to register massive destruction, multiple casualties, mutilated bodies, and life threatening situations. The locations of a disaster (urban/rural; local, national, international) affects the timeliness and sustainability of resources and support.

12 Scope In the last ten years 2 billion people or 1/3 rd of the earth’s population were affected by disasters (Regehr and Bober, 2005). Between 1992-2000, the United Nations reported 4, 989 disasters throughout the world; approximately 500 disasters/year.

13 Scope Continued An average of 60,000 people are killed each year by natural disasters. Armed conflict, genocide, and terrorism add to this number. Of the 25 largest violent events of the 20 th century it is estimated that 191 million people have lost their lives (Reza et al, 2001).

14 Theories of Disaster Management Several theories inform models of disaster management: (1) Historical Perspective (2) Prevention Model (Public Health) (3) Problem-Solving- Task Model (4) Conservation of Resources (COR) (5) Organizational Readiness (Structure- Functional theory) (6) Traumatogenic Forces

15 Theories Historical Perspective Initially, disasters were regarded as rare events of nature (outside forces). They were perceived fatalistically; neither predictable nor preventable. Overtime it was recognized that human actions contributed to disaster occurrence either through (1) preventable causes (i.e.poor building construction- poor farming practices) or through (2) deliberate acts of intentional harm (i.e. terrorism, toxic waste, genocide). This led to the recognition that human action might prevent or mitigate the effects of disasters.

16 Theories Prevention Model The concept of prevention has its origins in public health and community psychiatry. Prevention is conceptualized as primary (prevention-preparedness), secondary (early intervention), and tertiary (recovery in the disaster aftermath). Macro methods are needed to implement the three phases of this prevention model

17 Primary Prevention Preparedness Primary prevention identifies risks and hazards in the environment in an effort to eradicate them and prevent disasters. Comprehensive disaster preparedness plans help communities mitigate the effects of the disasters that occur unexpectedly and that unfold rapidly. Public education, rehearsal, and training prepare citizens to respond to a disaster in a manner that promotes resiliency and minimizes risk. A corps of first responders (police, fire, and medics) are trained to perform rescue & recovery.

18 Secondary Prevention Early Intervention Secondary prevention or early intervention consists of rescue and recovery. During the rescue phase, first responders are responsible for gaining control of the event or scene, preserving life and treating the wounded. During the recovery phase, responders locate the dead and process the remains.

19 Tertiary Prevention Recovery Phase Social workers help reconstruct communities and make repairs to the land and infrastructure. Social workers consider a variety of interventions that lie along the macro-micro continuum. Clinical social workers provide direct face-to-face concrete resources and counseling both on-site and in the crisis aftermath. Policy, advocacy, management and community practitioners establish policies and programs, fund, staff, and manage disaster relief programs and organizations.

20 Theories Problem-Solving-Task Model This model has nine tasks. (1) Gain control of the event, scene (2) Preserve life and treat the wounded (rescue) (3) Locate and recover the dead (recovery). (4) Manage risks on the scene and establish safe zones where victims can be relocated (5) Deploy and manage resources- water, food, shelter, sanitation, safety, clothing

21 Problem-Solving- Task Model Continued (6) Provide security; protect person & property; prevent looting (7) Provide official information on the disaster and the course of recovery; restore communication between survivors and their loved ones (8) Control rumors and maintain calm and cooperation (9) Assess secondary social problems such as health epidemics or displaced persons.

22 Theories Conservation of Resources According to Hobfoll (1989) material and social resources are key determinants in communal efficacy in responding to disasters. Hobfoll’s theory conceptualizes resources in the context of stress. This theory has two foci: (1) community infrastructure, (2) resource depletion

23 Conservation of Resources Continued In a disaster, communities attempt to obtain, retain, protect and foster resources. Where resources are scarce, a military or police presence is needed to regulate access and deter looting. This theory recognizes that local communities or governments may not be able to absorb the impact of a disaster with their own resources. There often is a need for directed invitations for outside help.

24 Conservation of Resources Resource Overload Directed invitations for outside support may lead to resource overload. Whether material or human, resources need to be coordinated. Human resources need to be housed and fed. Like the disaster itself, the arrival of resources can overtax a community.

25 Conservation of Resources Resource Loss In a disaster, the loss of one resource can quickly cascade into a series of losses. (Examples in text) The loss of a resource or the failure to regain resources after a disaster is a significant predictor of community stress. Depletion of material and human resources may lead to significant out-migration of the populace from the affected area and significant migratory influx to nearby areas.

26 Theories Organizational Readiness Structure-functional theory informs organizational practice during a disaster. Two layers of organizations are affected: (1) the local area impacted by the disaster responds first. (2) External emergency relief organizations may be invited to assist the affected local community.

27 Local Organizations Communities have a local office of emergency preparedness. This office is responsible for preparing a local emergency plan, initiating early warning systems, issuing evacuation orders and activating first responders. This office has a command structure composed of experts in communication, transportation, law enforcement, emergency medical care and emergency mental health counselors.

28 Directed Invitations External Organizations Depending on the location of the disaster, getting resources to it may be very difficult. The disaster may make the landscape unrecognizable; roads and sinage may be gone. Supplies (material and human), though available, may not be able to get where needed. Military and private sector airlifts may be required.

29 Theories Traumatogenic Forces According to Bloom (1998) what initially appears to be an isolated or unpredictable event may, upon closer analysis, reveal societal patterns that lead to the disaster. Capitalism (profit motive) may be a traumatogenic force in that it can lead to soil erosion, toxic waste, poor building construction, cost-saving tactics, and lax standards and enforcement. Immigration policies that endanger individuals or separate families or fail to respond to the plight of others may lead to humanitarian disasters.

30 Policies: Disaster Relief & Humanitarian Aid See chart 9.2 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. PL 93-288 – US. Congressional Disaster Relief Acts 1803; 1970; 1974 Congressional charter of 1905 – authorized American Red Cross to provide disaster relief around the world. United Nations resolution 46/182 – created the office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs.

31 Relief and Humanitarian Organizations See chart 9.3 Such organizations may be International (United Nations) or National (FEMA; Red Cross) Only the president of the United States can declare a national disaster and activate FEMA; Only a governor can declare a state emergency and activate the national guard. Several non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), religious communities and professional organizations (NASW and APA) participate in relief efforts and humanitarian aid.

32 Values Ideology and Ethics Competitive ideologies and values influence the decision to offer relief or humanitarian aid. Three of social work’s six core values support humanitarian principles: (1) service to others, (2) social justice, (3) dignity and worth of each individual regardless of color, language, or geographic location.

33 Humanitariansim Humanitarianism refers to principles and practices based on the doctrine that man’s ethical obligations are bound to the welfare of the human race. Deontologists (absolutists) argue that providing humanitarian aid is inherently the right thing to do. Teleologists (relativists) argue that every action requires evaluation based on its potential consequences.

34 Theories of Social Justice Humanitarian Aid and Relief Theories of social justice inform decisions related to desired end-goals. Utilitariansim seeks a response that will result in the greatest good for the greatest number. Egalitarianism (equality) and Contractarianism (equity) seek fairness in the distribution of goods and services to nations and populations who have great need from nations and populations that have much to give.

35 Socio-Political Ideology Domestic and international socio-political ideologies complicate decisions to engage in disaster relief and humanitarian aid. Decisions involving the allocation of resources are often associated with ethnic, racial, religious, or socio-economic class bias. Exchanges between populations with perceived similarities are more readily achieved than exchanges between populations which are dissimilar.

36 Socio-Political Ideology Continued Bias, in addition to need, shapes who gets help, how much and from whom. Within nations, conflicts of interest between opposing groups (i.e. citizens and chemical plants) is common. There are many different publics, each with its own socio-political reality.

37 War Political Appraisal Socio-political in nature, war often leads to conscription, detention, physical abuse, rape, military occupation, loss of civil rights and genocide. Even “just” wars produce human suffering and inhumane treatment for the civilian population as well as for military troops. Decisions to interfere in the affairs of other nations often depends on political rather than humanitarian appraisal

38 On-Site Conditions Hardship is incurred for those who deliver humanitarian relief in a disaster. On-site settings can be cramped, crowded, extremely hot, cold or wet. Tents, temporary shelters and refugee camps are common settings. There is no sharp demarcation between being on or off duty. Privacy, routine, and the comforts of home are distant memories.

39 On-Site Conditions Food is often nourishing but unappetizing; it is often culturally unfamiliar. Hazardous conditions continue and, in some instances, a threat to life remains a reality.

40 Importance of Technology Technology helps communities predict, warn and respond to disasters. Satellite imagery can monitor conditions on land, sea and air. Doppler systems can track wind, rain, snow and weather fronts. Meteorologists issue weather related watches (36 hrs) and warnings (24 hrs). Computers generate models of unfolding events based on data input.

41 Importance of Technology Continued Surveillance planes can fly into the eye of the storm and seismographs measure movement beneath the earth and sea and within volcanoes. Helicopters rescue persons and provide aerial surveys of damage. Wealthier nations have greater access to technological resources to warn and respond to disaster events.

42 Media Coverage The media shapes public sympathy by how much time and space they give to cover a disaster. Whom is interviewed is often related to socio- political factors. Mainstream broadcasting networks devote little sustained attention to disasters outside of North America. Reporters provide factual accounts of what happened, describe its significance and suggest social action

43 Media Coverage Continued The media becomes part of public inquiry in the disaster aftermath. The media investigates why the disaster happened and how it could have been avoided. The media investigates the response to the disaster in order to learn from it and improve performance in the next event. In the process of inquiry, the media often turns heroes into villains.

44 The Economics of Disaster Relief: Cost Between 1980-2002, there were more than 54 weather-related disasters at a minimum cost of over a billion dollars each. Estimated total costs for these events was 300 billion dollars. Budgeted monies may be depleted in a large scale event or a series of events. Fund raising is an important aspect of providing disaster relief and humanitarian aid.

45 Accountability Disaster Relief There are six types of accountability (1) Operational debriefing reviews the actions taken in order to learn from experience and improve performance in subsequent missions. (2) Retrospective analysis: seeks to identify causality (blame) and performance errors. (3) Fiscal: managers are held accountable for all expenditures.

46 Accountability Disaster Relief (4) Public officials are held accountable for acts of commission and omission. (5) Ethical accountability: actions taken and not taken are evaluated against an ethical screen of value hierarchies. (6) Managers are held accountable for the treatment of personnel deployed to deliver services.

47 Case Examples Decision Schemas See a crisis management case example and chapter-specific decision schemas in text.


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