The End & Aftermath of the War Textbook: Pg. 694
The End of the War ARMISTICE: an agreement to end fighting. But does an agreement to stop fighting mean that anyone admits defeat?? Cease-fire vs. surrender! 11:00 am on November 11, 1918 (11-11-18) We celebrate Veterans Day!
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
Results of the War More than 8.5 million people were dead. Factories, homes, roads, churches, farms, etc. were destroyed. HUGE debt from the war. Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Italy switches sides, Russia drops out) win and they want to blame someone! Allies want the losers to pay ‘reparations’ or payments for war damages. Governments of Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empires have collapsed.
The Paris Peace Conference United States = President Woodrow Wilson Britain = David Lloyd George France = Georges Clemenceau Italy = Vittorio Orlando
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points President Woodrow Wilson from the United States and other diplomats met at the Palace of Versailles to write a peace treaty. Wilson asked for: - freedom of the seas - free trade - reduction of arms - end of secret treaties - self-determination for all nations - to form an international body called ‘League of Nations’ where countries could discuss problems without going to war
Treaty of Versailles Terms Germany must assume full blame for the war. Germany had to pay war reparations. Germany had to limit size of army. Germany had to give up overseas colonies. Polish corridor was created: Germany had to give up territory in Europe. Territory of Alsace Lorraine given back to France.
Area of Concern Option 1Option 2Option 3 Blame: who is to blame for the war? Why? Germany No one nation can be blamed Other option your group decides on. Cost of the war: Germany must pay but how much? £2,000,000,000 £6,600,000,000 £24,000,000,000 Germany Military: should Germany ’ s armed forces be limited? If so, how? (think of men and equipment) Reduced to 100,000 men. German navy reduced to 36 ships. No conscription allowed. No tanks, submarines, or aircraft to be built. All wartime weapons to be melted down. Reduced to 250,000 men. German navy reduced to 50 ships. No conscription allowed. Allowed to keep all tanks, submarines, and air force. No further conscription, though forces to remain as before the war. All armed services to be at pre-war levels. Colonies: were mainly in Africa such as Togoland & Tanganyika, plus lands captured from the Turks. The colonies are to be allowed to govern themselves as independent nations. France and Great Britain split the colonies and territories captured from Germany and Turkey. The colonies are put under the control of the League of Nations until further decisions are made as to who is to run them.
Rhineland: the area that lies on the German side of the border with France. The Allies take control of the area not allowing German military to have a presence in the area. The League of Nations occupies the area so no one nation has it under control. Allow the Germans some control of the area with Allied supervision under the control of the League of Nations. Alsace- Lorraine: once part of France, the Germans took it in 1870. Returned to France. Germany is allowed to keep it. Placed under the control of the League of Nations until a decision is made. Saar: area of Germany with excellent coalfields. Give to France for 15 years. The French need to coal mines to rebuild after war. Following this time, the people of Saar vote to see if they want to be French or German. Remain in Germany – the rich coalfields are needed to build the German economy after war. Let Germany keep it- but half of any profit from the fields must be given to the Allies as war damages. Poland Let it remain in German hands. Make it a protectorate under the League of Nations until a vote can see who should govern it. Become an independent nation – this will cut off east Prussia (Germany) from the rest of Germany. It will have a port to trade with.
Danzig: a city of both German and Polish people. Let the Germans keep it.Let the Polish have it. Make a free city. Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia: these were formerly part of Russia. To become independent nations. Place under international control until the consequence can be viewed. Other option your group decides on. Czechoslovakia: formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (the empire broke up). Place under international control until the consequence can be viewed. Make an independent nation. Other option your group decides on.
How do you think German delegates felt about the way Germany was treated by the Allied Powers? (Primary Source: pg. 695)
End of the 1 st WW: Consequences Changed whole fabric of society. After the war, 1000s died from poverty and disease. Vast financial cost. Destroyed old certainties about social and economic life. Human suffering – millions of deaths.
Issues to Consider Who suffered from the war? What was the real cost of the war? What did the war achieve?
All Quiet on the Western Front All Quiet on the Western Front (1930) is the first major anti-war film of the sound era, faithfully based upon the timeless, best-selling 1929 novel by Erich Maria Remarque (who had experienced the war first- hand as a young German soldier). The film was advertised with the brooding face of one of the young German recruits sent into World War I. The film used acres of California ranch land for the battle scenes and employed over 2,000 extras. It was a critical and financial success, and probably the greatest of pacifist, anti-war films - the grainy black and white film is still not dated and the film hasn't lost its initial impact. The Academy Award winning film is still one of the few early sound films that modern audiences watch. However, it was criticized as being propagandistic and anti- militaristic, and it was denounced by the Nazi government of the 30s.