Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior: Conflict and Negotiation"— Presentation transcript:
1Organizational Behavior: Conflict and Negotiation Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
2Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. ConflictConflict: “The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.”Functional (Constructive) conflict serves the organization’s interests whiledysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
3Brown’s Conflict Continuum PositiveAppropriateConflictNeutralOutcomesToo MuchConflictToo LittleConflictNegativeModerateLowHigheIntensityGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
4Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. TraditionalTransitionsin ConflictThoughtHumanRelationsThe traditional view of conflict has argued that it must be avoided because it indicates a malfunction in the group. Conflict was viewed negatively as being synonymous with violence, destruction, and irrationality. The view that all conflict is bad is simplistic. To improve group or organizational performance, all we need to do is address the causes of conflict and correct them. Although strong evidence disputes this view, many use it to evaluate conflict.The human relations view argues that conflict is a natural, inevitable outcome in any group. Since conflict is inevitable, it should be accepted. And there are even times when conflict may benefit the performance of a group. This view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid-1970s.The current approach is the interactionist view. It encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, cooperative group is likely to become static and apathetic--unable to respond to the challenges of the global marketplace. The major contribution of this approach is to urge group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimal level of conflict--enough to keep the group alive, self-critical, and creative.InteractionistGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
5Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Conflict ProcessPerceivedConflictFeltManifestConflictSources ofConflictConflictOutcomesGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
6A Conflict Model (Figure 10-8) Aftermath ofPreceding EpisodeLatent ConflictFelt ConflictPerceived ConflictEnvironmentalEffectsStrategicConsiderationsManifest ConflictAttention-Focus andDiversionMechanismsOrganizationaland Extra-TensionsConflictResolutionConflict AftermathGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
7Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. A Conflict ModelLatent Conflict. Latent conflict is essentially conflict waiting to happen.Felt Conflict. Felt conflict is experienced as discomfort and tension.Perceived Conflict. Perceived conflict is the awareness that we are in a conflict situation.Manifest Conflict. After conflict is perceived and felt, it may or may not become open, or manifest.Conflict Aftermath. Conflict is likely to breed more conflict and, when it does, that conflict is likely to take on a life of its own.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
8Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last.Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
9Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Types of ConflictLine – Staff ConflictIntrapersonal ConflictApproach-ApproachApproach - AvoidanceAvoidance – AvoidanceInterpersonal ConflictIntergroup ConflictCross – Cultural ConflictTask ConflictGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
10Antecedents of Conflict Incompatible personalities or value systems.Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.Competition for limited resources.Interdepartment /intergroup competition.Inadequate communication.Interdependent tasks.Organizational complexity.Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules.Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.Collective decision making.Decision making by consensus.Unmet expectations.Unresolved or suppressed conflict.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
11Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityGoals conflict with goals of othersDifferent Valuesand BeliefsDifferent beliefs due to unique background, experience, trainingCaused by specialized tasks, careersExplains misunderstanding in cross-cultural and merger relationsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
12Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityThree levels of interdependenceResourceABCPooledDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceABCSequentialABCReciprocalGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
13Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceScarceResourcesIncreases competition for resources to fulfill goalsAmbiguityLack of rules guiding relationsEncourages political tacticsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
14Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceLack of opportunity--reliance on stereotypesLack of ability-- arrogant communication heightens conflict perceptionLack of motivation-- conflict causes lower motivation to communicate, increases stereotypingScarceResourcesAmbiguityCommunicationProblemsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
15Conflict Management Styles: Orientations Win-win orientationYou believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreementWin-lose orientationYou believe that the more one party receives, the less the other receivesTends to escalate conflict, use of power/politicsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
16Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict Follow company policies for diversity, anti-discrimination, and sexual harassment.Investigate and document conflict.If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or B Mod).If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution.Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
17Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact Model Level of perceivedInter-group conflict tends to increase when:Recommended actions:Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members).Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork.Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments.Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy).Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments.Conflict within the group is highThere are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups)Influential third-party gossip about other group is negativeGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
18Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships Behavior RankBe a good listenerBe sensitive to the needs of othersBe cooperative, rather than overly competitiveAdvocate inclusive (participative) leadershipCompromise rather than dominateBuild rapport through conversationsBe compassionate and understandingAvoid conflict by emphasizing harmonyNurture others (develop and mentor)TieGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
19Stimulating Functional Conflict Devil,s AdvocacyDialectic MethodGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
20Conflict Management Styles IntegratingObligingHighCompromisingConcern for OthersDominatingAvoidingLowHighLowConcern for SelfGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
21Conflict Management Styles Competing. Involves trying to win at the other party’s expense. Generally leads to antagonism and festering resentment.Avoiding. Attempts to avoid or smooth over conflict situations. Generally unproductive.Accommodating. Involves acceding completely to the other party’s wishes or at least cooperating with little or no attention to one’s own interests.Compromising. Involves an attempt to find a satisfactory middle ground (“split the difference”)Collaborating. This problem-solving style is mutually beneficial. Requires trust, open sharing of information, and creativity.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
22Fitting Conflict Style to the Situation Appropriate SituationCompetingTime is short and we're sure we're correct.The other party would take advantage of a collaborative approach.AvoidingThe conflict is trivial.We need a temporary, cooling-off tactic.AccommodatingThe other party has great power.The issue isn't important to us.CompromisingThere is little chance of agreement, both parties have equal power, and there are time constraints.CollaboratingThis is the "ideal" style to be sought unless the parties to conflict have perfectly opposing interests.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
23View of Ethics in Conflict Management UtilitarianGolden RuleKantian/ RightsEnlightened Self InterestJustice ApproachGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
24Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Conflict PremisesConflict and disagreement are normal in human relationships.Conflict may be good.The way in which conflict is framed may influence its nature and outcomes.Relationship/taskEmotional/intellectualCooperate/winA mutually acceptable solution can often be found.Any of the parties to conflict can contribute to its resolution by taking personal responsibility and initiating communications.Trusting behavior can evoke trusting behavior.Consensus and synergy are likely only when people choose to cooperate in a win-win relationship rather than compete.Some conflicts may never be resolved because of fear, rigidity, intolerance, paranoia, or other emotional impairment.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
25Approaches to Conflict Resolution ReducedConflictImproveCommunicationsClarify JobResponsibilitiesDevelopEmployees’Negotiating SkillsUse ThirdParties asMediatorsSeparateConflictingPartiesBring PartiesTogether to FosterUnderstanding andCooperationFocus onLarger GoalsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
26Communication Guidelines to Build More Productive Relationships Be honest; say what’s on your mind now. Be open.Be specific; provide examples.Don’t use the words never and always.Listen in depth; reflect and paraphrase what you hear.Ask questions to clarify the meaning of what the other person is saying.Focus on behavior that the other person controls.Maintain good eye contact.Focus on only one specific issue or behavior at a time.Don’t interrupt.Stay there. Don’t walk away mentally, emotionally, physically, or psychologically.Be direct and tactful.Use I statements rather than you statements (e.g., “When this happens, I feel …” rather than “When you do this, it makes me feel …”).Don’t attack the other person by ridiculing, taunting, or otherwise being rude and hostile.Don’t defend yourself by blaming others, avoiding, or withdrawing.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
27Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. NegotiatingNegotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.”Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose.Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
28The Two Types of Bargaining Strategies CharacteristicsDistributiveBargainingIntegrativeBargainingAvailable ResourcesPrimary MotivationsPrimary InterestsFocus of RelationshipsFixed AmountI Win, You LoseOpposedShort-TermVariable AmountI Win, You WinCongruentLong-TermTwo negotiation methods are distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining.When negotiating the price of a used car, the buyer and seller are engaged in distributive bargaining. This type of bargaining is a zero-sum game: any gain that one party makes comes at the expense of the other party. So, the essence is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie.The next technique assumes that more than one “win-win” settlement exists. Generally preferable to distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships because each negotiator can leave the table feeling victorious. For integrative bargaining to succeed, negotiators must be open, candid, sensitive, trusting, and flexible.All things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. The former builds long-term relationships and facilitates future cooperation. The latter, on the other hand, leaves one party a loser; so it can build animosities and deepen divisions when people have to work together on an ongoing basis.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
29An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interests.Identify options.Design alternative deal packages.Select a deal.Perfect the deal.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
30Situational Influences on Negotiation LocationPhysical SettingTime Investment and DeadlinesAudience.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
31Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Bargaining Zone ModelYour PositionsInitialTargetResistanceArea ofPotentialAgreementResistanceTargetInitialOpponent’s PositionsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
32Decision-Making Biases That Impede Negotiations Escalation of commitmentThe mythical fixed pieAnchoring and adjustmentsFraming negotiationsAvailability of informationThe winner’s curseOverconfidenceIrrational escalation of commitment occurs when people continue a previously selected course of action beyond what rational analysis would recommend. Such misdirected persistence can waste a great deal of time, energy, and cash.The mythical fixed pie. Bargainers assume that their gain must come at the expense of the other party. By assuming a “zero-sum game” they exclude any opportunities for finding “win-win” solutions.Anchoring and adjustments. People often anchor their judgments on irrelevant information, such as initial offers. Effective negotiators do not let an initial anchor minimize the amount of information and depth of analysis they use to evaluate a situation.Framing negotiations. People are affected by the way information is presented to them.Availability of information. Negotiators often rely too much on information that is readily available while ignoring more relevant data. They should learn to distinguish between what is familiar and what is reliable and relevant.The winner’s curse is the regret one feels after negotiation. Since your offer was accepted by your opponent, you become concerned that you offered too much. You can reduce the “curse” by getting as much information as possible and putting yourself in your opponent’s shoes.Overconfidence. When people hold certain beliefs and expectations, they tend to ignore any information that contradicts them. The result is that negotiators tend to be overconfident, which can lessen the incentive to compromise.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
33Effective Negotiator Behaviours Plan and Set GoalsGather InformationCommunicate EffectivelyMake Appropriate Concessions..Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
34Improving Negotiation Skills Research your opponentBegin with a positive overtureAddress problems, not personalitiesPay little attention to initial offersEmphasize win-win solutionsCreate an open, trusting climateThe following recommendations should help to improve your effectiveness as a negotiator:1. Research your opponent to acquire as much information as you can about his or her interests and goals. Such knowledge will help you to understand behavior, predict responses to offers, and frame solutions.2. Begin with a positive overture because research shows that concessions tend to be reciprocated.3. Address the problem, not personalities. Avoid the tendency to attack your opponent. Separate people from problems; don’t personalize differences.4. Pay little attention to initial offers. Because everyone has an initial position which tends to be extreme and idealistic, treat initial offers as points of departure.5. Emphasize “win-win” solutions. Look for an integrative solution. Frame options in terms of your opponent’s interests and look for solutions that will allow both of you to declare victory.6. Create an open, trusting climate. Ask questions, listen actively, and avoid defensiveness or inappropriate wording. Doing so will help to create a climate that is conducive to an integrative settlement.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
35Third – Party Negotiations MediatorArbitratorConciliatorConsultantGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
36Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other.Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants.Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding.Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
37Unethical Negotiating Tactics LiesPufferyDeceptionWeakening The OpponentStrengthening One’s Own PositionInformation ExploitationNondisclosureChange of MindDistractionMaximizationGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.