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Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Conflict and Negotiation.

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Presentation on theme: "Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Conflict and Negotiation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Conflict and Negotiation

2 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.Conflict Functional (Constructive) conflict serves the organization’s interests while dysfunctional conflict dysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests. Conflict: Conflict: “The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.”

3 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Positive Outcomes Low Moderate Highe Brown’s Conflict Continuum Too Little Conflict Too Much Conflict Neutral Negative Intensity Appropriate Conflict

4 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. TraditionalTraditional Transitions in Conflict ThoughtTransitions Thought HumanRelationsHumanRelations InteractionistInteractionist

5 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Conflict Process Sources of Conflict ManifestConflict ConflictOutcomes Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict

6 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. A Conflict Model (Figure 10-8) Conflict Aftermath Aftermath of Preceding Episode Latent Conflict Felt ConflictPerceived Conflict Environmental Effects Strategic Considerations Manifest Conflict Attention- Focus and Diversion Mechanisms Organizational and Extra- Organizational Tensions Conflict Resolution Mechanisms

7 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. A Conflict Model Latent Conflict. Latent conflict is essentially conflict waiting to happen. Felt Conflict. Felt conflict is experienced as discomfort and tension. Perceived Conflict. Perceived conflict is the awareness that we are in a conflict situation. Manifest Conflict. After conflict is perceived and felt, it may or may not become open, or manifest. Conflict Aftermath. Conflict is likely to breed more conflict and, when it does, that conflict is likely to take on a life of its own.

8 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement Agreement : Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last. Stronger relationships: Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future. Learning: Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.

9 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Types of Conflict Line – Staff Conflict Line – Staff Conflict Intrapersonal Conflict Intrapersonal ConflictApproach-Approach Approach - Avoidance Avoidance – Avoidance Interpersonal Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Intergroup Conflict Intergroup Conflict Cross – Cultural Conflict Cross – Cultural Conflict Task Conflict Task Conflict

10 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Antecedents of Conflict 1.Incompatible personalities or value systems. 2.Overlapping or unclear job boundaries. 3.Competition for limited resources. 4.Interdepartment /intergroup competition. 5.Inadequate communication. 6.Interdependent tasks. 7.Organizational complexity. 8.Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules. 9.Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure. 10.Collective decision making. 11.Decision making by consensus. 12.Unmet expectations. 13.Unresolved or suppressed conflict.

11 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of Conflict GoalIncompatibility Different Values and Beliefs Goals conflict with goals of others Different beliefs due to unique background, experience, training Caused by specialized tasks, careers Explains misunderstanding in cross- cultural and merger relations

12 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of Conflict GoalIncompatibility Different Values and Beliefs TaskInterdependence Three levels of interdependence Resource ABC Pooled ABC Sequential A BC Reciprocal

13 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of Conflict GoalIncompatibility Different Values and Beliefs TaskInterdependence ScarceResources Ambiguity Increases competition for resources to fulfill goals Lack of rules guiding relations Encourages political tactics

14 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of Conflict GoalIncompatibility Different Values and Beliefs TaskInterdependence ScarceResources Ambiguity CommunicationProblems Lack of opportunity --reliance on stereotypes Lack of ability -- arrogant communication heightens conflict perception Lack of motivation -- conflict causes lower motivation to communicate, increases stereotyping

15 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Conflict Management Styles: Orientations Win-win orientation –You believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreement Win-lose orientation –You believe that the more one party receives, the less the other receives –Tends to escalate conflict, use of power/politics

16 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict 1.Follow company policies for diversity, anti- discrimination, and sexual harassment. 2.Investigate and document conflict. 3.If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or B Mod). 4.If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution. 5.Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions.

17 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact Model Conflict within the group is high There are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups) Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members). Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork. Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments. Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy). Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments. Recommended actions: Level of perceived Inter-group conflict tends to increase when:

18 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships BehaviorRank Behavior Rank Be a good listener 1 Be sensitive to the needs of others 2 Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive 2 Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership 3 Compromise rather than dominate 4 Build rapport through conversations 5 Be compassionate and understanding 6 Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7 Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8 Tie

19 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Stimulating Functional Conflict Dialectic Method Devil,s Advocacy

20 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Conflict Management Styles IntegratingObliging DominatingAvoiding Compromising HighLow High Low Concern for Others Concern for Self

21 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Competing. Involves trying to win at the other party’s expense. Generally leads to antagonism and festering resentment. Avoiding. Attempts to avoid or smooth over conflict situations. Generally unproductive. Accommodating. Involves acceding completely to the other party’s wishes or at least cooperating with little or no attention to one’s own interests. Compromising. Involves an attempt to find a satisfactory middle ground (“split the difference”) Collaborating. This problem-solving style is mutually beneficial. Requires trust, open sharing of information, and creativity. Conflict Management Styles

22 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Fitting Conflict Style to the Situation Conflict StyleAppropriate Situation Competing  Time is short and we're sure we're correct.  The other party would take advantage of a collaborative approach. Avoiding  The conflict is trivial.  We need a temporary, cooling-off tactic. Accommodating  The other party has great power.  The issue isn't important to us. Compromising  There is little chance of agreement, both parties have equal power, and there are time constraints. Collaborating  This is the "ideal" style to be sought unless the parties to conflict have perfectly opposing interests.

23 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. View of Ethics in Conflict Management Utilitarian Golden Rule Kantian/ Rights Enlightened Self Interest Justice Approach

24 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Conflict Premises Conflict and disagreement are normal in human relationships. Conflict may be good. The way in which conflict is framed may influence its nature and outcomes. –Relationship/task –Emotional/intellectual –Cooperate/win A mutually acceptable solution can often be found. Any of the parties to conflict can contribute to its resolution by taking personal responsibility and initiating communications. Trusting behavior can evoke trusting behavior. Consensus and synergy are likely only when people choose to cooperate in a win-win relationship rather than compete. Some conflicts may never be resolved because of fear, rigidity, intolerance, paranoia, or other emotional impairment.

25 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Approaches to Conflict Resolution Reduced Conflict Improve Communications Clarify Job Responsibilities Develop Employees’ Negotiating Skills Use Third Parties as Mediators Separate Conflicting Parties Bring Parties Together to Foster Understanding and Cooperation Focus on Larger Goals

26 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Communication Guidelines to Build More Productive Relationships 1.Be honest; say what’s on your mind now. Be open. 2.Be specific; provide examples. 3.Don’t use the words never and always. 4.Listen in depth; reflect and paraphrase what you hear. 5.Ask questions to clarify the meaning of what the other person is saying. 6.Focus on behavior that the other person controls. 7.Maintain good eye contact. 8.Focus on only one specific issue or behavior at a time. 9.Don’t interrupt. 10.Stay there. Don’t walk away mentally, emotionally, physically, or psychologically. 11.Be direct and tactful. 12.Use I statements rather than you statements (e.g., “When this happens, I feel …” rather than “When you do this, it makes me feel …”). 13.Don’t attack the other person by ridiculing, taunting, or otherwise being rude and hostile. 14.Don’t defend yourself by blaming others, avoiding, or withdrawing.

27 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.Negotiating Distributive negotiation: Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win. Negotiation: Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.”

28 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Available Resources Primary Motivations Primary Interests Focus of Relationships Fixed Amount I Win, You Lose Opposed Short-Term Variable Amount I Win, You Win Congruent Long-Term Integrative Bargaining Distributive Bargaining Characteristics The Two Types of Bargaining Strategies

29 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation  Clarify interests.  Identify options.  Design alternative deal packages.  Select a deal.  Perfect the deal.

30 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Situational Influences on Negotiation Location Physical Setting Time Investment and Deadlines Audience.

31 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Your Positions Initial Target Initial Target Opponent’s Positions Area of Potential Agreement Bargaining Zone Model Resistance

32 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Decision-Making Biases That Impede Negotiations Escalation of commitment The mythical fixed pie Anchoring and adjustments Framing negotiations Availability of information The winner’s curse Overconfidence

33 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Effective Negotiator Behaviours Plan and Set Goals Gather Information Communicate Effectively Make Appropriate Concessions.

34 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Improving Negotiation Skills Research your opponent Begin with a positive overture Address problems, not personalities Pay little attention to initial offers Emphasize win-win solutions Create an open, trusting climate

35 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Third – Party Negotiations  Mediator  Arbitrator  Conciliator  Consultant

36 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation: Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other. Conciliation: Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants. Peer review: Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. Ombudsman: Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially. Mediation: Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. Arbitration: Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.

37 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Unethical Negotiating Tactics 1.Lies 2.Puffery 3.Deception 4.Weakening The Opponent 5.Strengthening One’s Own Position 6.Information Exploitation 7.Nondisclosure 8.Change of Mind 9.Distraction 10.Maximization


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